Saturday, December 2, 2017

Five Reasons you do not lose Fat when Dieting

Are you dieting and not losing fat? You are not aware of some common diet mistakes that you may be committing. Kathleen Zelman, Director of Nutrition for WebMD, says that you “may be eating a lot more calories than you think when you are on a diet”. You can check out the common diet mistakes everyone makes as per Adam Bornstein who contributes to `’ by writing articles on weight loss strategies. 1. Not sticking to the basics – Exercises are created to relax you. Your workout has to be enjoyable. You are not going to get fit any faster if you are doing a ball balancing act on one leg. The basics will get you the same results. You will find them in the classic multi-muscle exercises such as squats and dead lifts. The fat on your butts and legs will definitely melt. While doing this, you cannot eat whenever you feel like. Do not be a victim of “eating amnesia” when you put your hand to mouth without knowing it. This happens mostly in front of a television in your living room when you snatch something from a packet or while reading a book. How can you kick this habit of mindless eating? You can get out of this habit by trying a cup of tea or a glass of water or simply chewing sugarless gum. 2. Performing more Cardio – Cardio may help you burn those calories and fat but it is not the answer or a primary solution. It is the weight training that is more likely to burn your fat. Cardio has to be secondary to weight training. Our hectic daily schedules have made us get into the unhealthy habit of eating fast. Tara Gidus, a Spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association, says, “We need to adopt more of the leisurely European-style eating so that we can savor our food”. 3. There is no intensity in your workout – People try to focus more on the social aspect in the gym than concentrate on the workout itself, particularly if they go to the gym with a cycle of friends. Workout has to be intense and short. The idea is to feel your muscles work while sweating it out. You must be skipping meals besides going to the gym. Breakfast skipping is a big mistake. Research has shown that breakfast eaters weigh less on an average than breakfast skippers. Two meals, at least per day, should be taken. 4. Taking in too many liquid calories – You may not know but liquid calories from sodas, teas, sweetened juices, coffee and smoothies add that extra fat on to you. Alcohol is also in this list. A study has found that more than twenty per cent of people get their extra calories from beverages. 5. Choosing unhealthy Add-ons – When you are on a diet, you try to increase the portions in the size of your snacks or meals for the simple reason that you feel you are doing regular exercise and also skipping meals. You also develop a habit of topping your topping your diet salads with high-fat add-ons like creamy dressings, croutons, bacon and cheese.

Escape with a relaxing Croatia Yacht Charter

Croatia has become a popular destination for people who want to sail. Visitors are attracted to its beaches and blue waters on account of its hot climate. People get to see and visit more than a hundred little peaceful islands in the neighboring Adriatic Sea. Yacht charter in Croatia is an ideal way to go about visiting these islands and the major cities along the coast. It is a marvelous experience to explore these places. Croatia yacht charters can give you an opportunity to explore the Adriatic Sea by selecting all sizes of sailing boats or luxury yachts. You get the option of choosing among large sized motor yachts, gullets and catamarans. The rentals of mega yachts are very popular for sailing in Croatia. Perfect Place for Sailing You can do sailing in Croatia if you love the sea and the sun. All water sports enthusiasts rent boats in Croatia to spend a perfect summer holiday. Apart from sailing, this place has many attractions. There are many interesting archaeological sites. Among them, there are eight national parks and six sites in the World Heritage category. There is plenty of night life on offer on the islands with some great diners and bars with live music. Dubrovnik in Croatia provides a Middle Age touch to the visitors. It is an impressive sight when you arrive into Dubrovnik by the sea route. It is a perfect place to stop for a yacht charter in Croatia. Another major Croatia yacht charter town is Split which is one of the largest Dalmatian towns on the Adriatic Coast. The number of gullets and sailing yachts that are available here make this a major port. Split is an important place for tourism. The town offers many attractions in the form of restaurants and shops. Pula is another place in Croatia where its coastal waters allow the visitors to do fishing, diving and snorkeling. Pula is also known for its ancient surviving Roman monuments, the First Century Amphitheatre being the most famous. This is among the six biggest Roman arenas that have survived in the world and has been named as the `Arena’ locally. Another important attraction at Pula is the Gate of Hercules that also dates back to the first century. Private Tours and Sailing Holidays in Croatia Croatia has a lot to offer to the tourist today with neighboring Slovenia and Lake Bled as extensions to the sailing holiday. The coastline is packed with glamorous islands and ancient ports with their sights of wilderness. You can get in touch with us to plan your sailing in Croatia as we offer many private tours to suit one and all. You can plan your yacht charter in Croatia from Opatija, Dubrovnik or Split. These charters can take you to the lovely islands on tours stretching up to eight days. Croatia yacht charter can take you on private tours to explore the beauty of the coastal areas. While on tour, you can visit the Krka and Plitvice National Parks. You can also visit the historical town of Zadar which is like a cultural capital of Croatia. Explore the Hidden Gems of Europe while on a Sailing Holiday in Croatia We can arrange the private tour for you to discover and explore some of the hidden and rare places of Europe while sailing in Croatia. You can start from the Port of Dubrovnik. It is an ancient walled city that has streets of cobbled stones, vintage boutiques and fine dining places. Dubrovnik is also well known for its wine and good seafood. You can also plan a yacht charter in Croatia at Split and Opatija. The Adriatic Sea is packed with many scenic islands. Croatia yacht charter is the biggest attraction for sailing enthusiasts. The pristine beaches and the beautiful waters are a pleasing sight for many a tourist. Luxury Yacht Specialists We can offer you the largest database of rentals for boats on the Adriatic Sea as Croatia yacht charter specialists. We offer a fleet of motor boats, sailing boats, catamarans, gullets and luxury yachts to make sailing in Croatia an easy and enjoyable experience for you. Simply browse through our site and pick out a yacht that suits you from our full service yacht charter in Croatia. Our team is always ready to offer the ideal luxury yacht charter to visitors. We also offer our full charter service to private individual or business clients. The charter could be for any special occasion or just for holidaying. We can take care of all car and mini-van transfers from the airports before you decide to escape with a relaxing Croatia yacht charter.

An Essay on the Punjabi Language

Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language that is spoken by people of the Punjab region in North Western India and in North Eastern Pakistan. Punjabi can be divided into two categories. The categories are Western Punjabi and Eastern Punjabi. Western Punjabi broke up into Saraiki, Potwari and Hindko. These came to be counted later almost as separate languages. Eastern Punjabi remained independently as what is Punjabi today. It is the official language of the state of Punjab in India. The term `Punjabi’ refers to the land which belongs to five waters. The word has its roots in Persian. It refers to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. For the community of Sikhs, Punjabi is their principal language. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most spoken language. There are more than one hundred and six million native speakers of the Punjabi language. This makes it the tenth most widely spoken language in the world. There are about seventy six million native Punjabi speakers in Pakistan and about thirty million Punjabi speakers in India. Punjabi is a descendant of the Saurasheni Prakrit which was spoken as the main language in medieval Northern India. After the partition of India, the Punjab region was divided between Pakistan and India. Though the Punjabi people made up the second biggest linguistic group in Pakistan after Bengali, Urdu was declared the national language of Pakistan. Punjabi did not get any official status. The Indian territory of Punjab which also included Haryana and Himachal Pradesh became a Hindi majority region. Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where the Punjabis have migrated in large numbers such as the United States of America, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. History Punjabi can be traced back as an independent language to the ninth century after Christ. The earliest traces of Punjabi can be found in the works of Nath Yogis, Gorakshanath and Charpatnath in the ninth century. Punjab faced the brunt of Moghul invaders during the middle ages. The internal conflicts within Punjab also proved harmful to the growth and development of the Punjabi language and its literary works. Guru Nanak, who lived between 1469 and 1539, was the founder of the Sikh religion and he gave a new impetus to the Punjabi language. The fifth Guru, Arjun Dev, 1563-1606, compiled the Sikh scripture, the `Adi Grantha’ or the `Grantha Saheb’ in Punjabi. During these middle ages, the Hindu and Sikh writers wrote in the Punjabi language. The best known Hindu Punjabi poet of the seventeenth century was Chandar Bhan who was originally from Lahore. The Muslim writers were also prolific in terms of creativity in Punjabi. A Muslim poet named Abdullah, 1616-1666, wrote `Bara Anva’(Twelve Topics) in Punjabi which is a thesis on Islam. During this period, many Muslim Sufi poets came into the limelight. Their compositions, which were purely in Punjabi, form an integral part of the Punjabi literature in both content and spirit. One of the famous Sufi poets was Ali Haider, 1689-1776, who wrote a large number of `Siharfis’ or poems involving thirty stanzas. Each stanza began, though, with a letter of the Persian alphabet. Poems on historical figures and stories formed a major literary part of the eighteenth century. After the British took over Punjab, Hindi language gained prominence in Punjab. The Hindus too with their reform movements like Arya Samaj and Sanatan Dharma gave importance to Hindi. Punjabi, in its Gurumukhi character, was taken up and used mainly by the Sikhs. Dialects Punjabi language has many dialects which are spoken in the sub regions of greater Punjab. Since the partition of Punjab in 1947, Punjabi that is spoken in both Pakistan and India has drifted apart from each other. The Indians rely heavily on Sanskrit vocabulary through Hindi. The Pakistanis rely mostly on Farsi and Urdu influence with the Shahmukhi script. The Majhi dialect is Punjab’s prime dialect. It is considered as textbook Punjabi and is spoken in the historical region of Majha. It has had its influence on both Amritsar and Lahore. Modern Punjabi consists of many dialects. The Majhi or the standard Punjabi is the written standard in both parts of Punjab. The Punjabi language in India has replaced several Persian and Arabic loan words acquired through Urdu with words of Sanskrit origin because of the domination of Hindi instead of Urdu in India. Recent modernisation and industrialisation has seen an English influence in both parts of Punjab. Major Punjabi dialects are Majhi, Shahpuri, Malwi, Doabi, Pwadhi, Dogri and Multani. The Multani dialect of Punjabi is spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Riasati and Thalochri are sub dialects of Multani. It is spoken by a majority of people in the northern parts of Sindh, Hyderabad and Karachi. Dogri is spoken by about four million people in the Jammu region of India. Pwadhi is spoken in Powadh and in some regions of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Sutlej and the Ghaggar rivers. Doabi is spoken in Indian Punjab in Jalandhar, Nawanshahr and Hoshiarpur between the Beas and the Sutlej rivers. Doabi means in Persian the land between two rivers. Malwi is spoken in the eastern part of Indian Punjab. Main areas are Ludhiana, Barnala and Faridkot. Shahpuri dialect is mainly spoken in Pakistani Punjab. It is named after the town of Shahpur. Majhi or the prime dialect is spoken in central Punjab spanning Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Amritsar and Gurdaspur. A few portions of the Guru Granth Saheb use the Punjabi dialects but the book is also interspersed with several languages including Brijbhasha, Khariboli and Sanskrit. Guru Gobind Singh, the last Guru of the Sikhs, composed `Chandi di Var’ in Punjabi. Some of his works were written in languages like Brijbhasha and Farsi. Punjabi is extra ordinary among the modern Indo-European languages because it is a tonal language. Script In the twentieth century, the Punjabi speaking Sikhs started giving importance to the Punjabi written in the Gurumukhi script as an emblem of their distinct identity. Punjabi identity was affected by the communal sentiments in the twentieth century. Pakistani Punjabis use the older Shahmukhi script which is a modified version of the Persian Nastaliqi script. Gurumukhi and Shahmukhi are the two official scripts of the Punjabi language. Gurumukhi script was derived from Brahmi which was used for Ashoka’s edicts and was known for its vowel signs. Literature The Punjabi literary origin started with Baba Farid or Fariduddin Ganjshakar in the early thirteenth century. The literary tradition continued with many ancient Sufi Muslim writers and with Guru Nanak Dev, the first Guru of Sikhism. The early Punjabi literature was essentially spiritual in nature and has had a strong oral tradition. The poetry written by Sufi saints has formed the folklore of Punjab and has still remained popular where people sing with great affection in all parts of Punjab. Muslim Sufi writers composed many works in Punjabi between 1600 and 1850. The most well known Punjabi Sufi poet was Baba Bulleh Shah (1680-1757). He wrote in the Kafi style. He practiced the Sufi tradition of Punjabi poetry that was established by poets like Shah Hussain (1540-1600), Sultan Bahu (1630-1690) and Shah Sharaf (1640-1725). He was also a contemporary of the legendary poet Waris Shah (1722-1798) who wrote Heer Ranjha. This is one of the most popular medieval Punjabi works. Other popular tragic love stories are Sohni Mahiwal, Mirza Sahiba and Sassi Punnun. Shah Mohammad’s `Jangnama’ is a fine piece of poetry that describes an account of the First Anglo Sikh war that occurred after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The great linguist, George Abraham Grierson, used the word Punjabi and its dialects in his multi volume, `Linguistic Survey of India’ which he wrote between 1904 and 1928. A major figure in the revival movement of the Punjabi literary tradition, Bhai Vir Singh, started insisting that the Punjabi language was the exclusive prerogative of the Sikhs. Grammar Punjabi has three typical tones that developed from the lost voiced aspirate series of consonants. Phonetically, the tones are rising or rising-falling contours and they can spread over more than one syllable. The grammar of the Punjabi language is the study of the word order, case marking and other morphological structures. Punjabi language has homonyms. They are words that have the same spelling and pronunciation but with different meanings and usually different parts of speech. Punjabi nouns have an assigned gender and they can be either masculine or feminine though some nouns can be used for both the genders due to dialectical variations. The gender value is purely grammatical for inanimate objects. The assignment of gender to inanimate objects is arbitrary. The nouns also can be singular or plural. There are two cases – direct and oblique and this applies to almost all the nouns. A typical Punjabi noun can have on an average five to six different forms depending on the values of number and case. In Punjabi, there are six types of pronouns. They are personal, reflexive, demonstrative, indefinite, relative and interrogative. Punjabi adjectives can be classified into two categories – inflected and uninflected depending upon whether they change forms for number or case or not. Punjabi verbs change forms for gender, number, person, tense and phase. Like nouns, the verbs have two genders – masculine and feminine and two number forms that are singular and plural. The verbs also take forms for three person cases – first, second and third person categories. The verbs can be in perfect or non perfect forms. The verbs take form for future tense only and an auxiliary verb form is used for the present and the past tense. Postpositions are similar to the prepositions in English. They link the noun and the pronoun to other parts of the sentence. There are various particles that are used in the Punjabi sentences for emphasis and negation. There are four main types of particles – emphatic, negative, honorific and vocative. Punjabi phrases can be classified broadly into two types – nominal phrases and verb phrases. There are at least three ways in which emphasis can be represented in written Punjabi sentences. They are iteration of words, using emphatic particles or changing the phrase order. Punjabi in Modern Culture Punjabi language is now getting accepted among the Punjabis for wider use in modern media and communications network. This language has always remained as an integral part of the Indian film scene, particularly in Bollywood. There has been a trend of Bollywood songs written totally in Punjabi. The pop and folk songs in Punjabi have become very popular both in India and Pakistan at the national level. Many television dramas based on characters from Punjab are telecast every day by various channels. The numbers of students who are opting for Punjabi literature has increased in Punjab. Punjabi cinema in India has also seen a big revival and many Punjabi films are being made nowadays.

Airlines can now fly through Volcanic Ash Clouds

A new tool will now allow air planes to fly through volcanic ash clouds and tackle unnecessary disruptions. There is a group of scientists working at the Norwegian Institute of Air Research and they have informed that their latest tool will help to keep the flight paths open. It is called Airborne Volcanic Object Imaging Detector (AVOID). This tool was earlier tested and introduced in Sicily with a test flight over Mount Etna. It is an active volcano that looms over the Mediterranean island. This technology has been designed by a British scientist by the name of Dr. Fred Prata. The system uses heat detecting cameras and combines them with satellite data and atmospheric modelling to inform the pilots where an ash cloud is located and where it could be heading. This jet testing technology can make it feasible for pilots to identify an ash cloud ahead at altitudes of almost anywhere between 5000 and 50000 feet. AVOID uses two fast sampling thermal infra red cameras that make images and identify anything that is in front of the aeroplanes. The two cameras have been tuned to identify silicates which are the components that make up the volcanic ash. The cameras would be able to identify the silicates up to a hundred kilometres or maybe more even at a mean height of around thirty thousand feet and that information can be relayed straight back to the pilots in the cockpit and they will be able to see the volcanic ash in the atmosphere ahead of the aeroplane and manoeuvre around the cloud or patches of clouds.

Wednesday, November 29, 2017

Holistic Dieting and Top Ten Considerations about it

A holistic diet goes beyond what you eat. It transcends beyond the food on your table or the burning of calories through exercising. It concerns you as a total person and gives you a healthy lifestyle in a package. Its main aim is to nourish your body, arrest chronic health concerns and increase your levels of energy to create an overall sense of well being. World Health Organization has explained health to be “more than the absence of disease; Health is a state of optimal well being”. Amanda Landis, a practicing nutritionist and Principal of Pure Balance Plan LLC has talked about the important considerations of a holistic diet while writing for `’ and spelt out the ten most important considerations about a holistic diet to understand its objectives. 1. Developing a healthy and balanced diet – One of the basic principles of a holistic diet is the need to balance the macronutrients like carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Neda Smith, the Co-Editor of Holistic Nutrition, talks about the foods that give us nourishment. She talks about how not all carbohydrates are bad and they need not be eliminated from your diet. 2. Maintaining an adequate diet – It is important to eat natural food in a holistic diet and to avoid processed foods. Natural foods include fish, whole grains, vegetables, meats, fresh juices, herbal teas and coffee substitutes. 3. Balancing your diet – You have to balance the macronutrients in your diet with the micronutrients like fiber, minerals and vitamins to help the body in optimizing energy so that it reaches high levels of physical and emotional health. 4. Eating moderately – It is better to eat moderately foods that have high sugar and fat content. 5. Digesting your food properly – It is important for you to digest your food to maintain good health. Cold beverages and cold foods do not help the cause as they are slow to digest. Also, you have to chew the food well before you swallow it. It may come as a surprise to you but foods that contain probiotics or friendly bacteria are strongly recommended as they contribute to your good digestion and your intestinal health. 6. Laying the foundation for good emotional health – Sandra Caton, Editor for the American Holistic Health Association, talks about how you can be consciously aware of your thoughts, behavior and feelings towards your family, friends and the people you interact with. 7. Building up respect for your environment – You can participate in the community and neighborhood projects of cleaning up and respecting the `Go Green’ philosophy. 8. Gathering information to make well informed wellness oriented choices – Making the right kind of food choices can help you to avoid health problems in the future such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cancer. 9. Participating actively in your health decisions and your healing process – This can be done through disciplining yourself to maintain a nutritional diet and following a regular exercise regime. 10. Integrating nourishment for your mental and spiritual health – This can be done through various modes of attaining mental peace and it can come through Yoga, simple meditation and recreation like reading or listening to music. Do you wake up with enough enthusiasm for the day that is ahead?

The Advantages of taking Copper Supplements

Copper is a mineral that our body needs. It plays a major role in fighting iron deficiency that leads to anaemia. Iron cannot be absorbed from the intestinal tract without the circulation of small amounts of copper in the body. People are not aware of the full health benefits of copper supplements and they do not take enough of this important nutrient. Copper supplements can give you benefit in several ways. The most important function of this mineral is in the production of energy and in the formation of haemoglobin. Throughout history, people involved in the business of healing have understood the importance of copper in staying healthy. Copper supplements have been used in the past for the treatment of diseases. Copper has been advised for medicinal purposes as far back as ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. It was being used as an application to the body even by the ancient Aztec Civilization. Ancient Egyptian medical texts mention the use of copper as an agent of sterilization for drinking water and treating wounds. It has also been used for headaches, palsy and burns. Hippocrates, who is regarded as the father of modern medicine, has mentioned in his doctrines that copper is to be used as treatment for leg ulcers which are associated with varicose veins. Copper supplements make it easy for the body to use iron. Researchers have identified that copper makes a difference in the treatment of osteoporosis, high blood pressure and cancer. Studies have associated copper deficiencies with heart ailments by means of bad cholesterol levels, leading to hypertension. Other signs of copper deficiency include anaemia, baldness and skin sores. It is to be remembered that copper can be toxic if you take it in excess. Excessive copper intake can give side effects like nausea, vomiting and joint pains. The National Academy of Sciences has set a maximum allowance level of three milligrams per day for adults and two and a half milligrams per day for children. Most of the multi vitamins include copper as a supplement. Oral copper supplements can be found in gels and solutions. Copper supplements are an important part of a nutritional program for the healing of wounds. Many medical researchers believe that infusion of copper into wound dressings will help in healing faster and the regeneration of skin cells. Copper supplementation has also been found crucial in the treatment of arthritis. It has been established that copper supplements are important to the health of our nerves as these supplements are required to build and maintain myelin which is like an insulation that protects and covers our nerve cells. Our body requires copper supplements to help an enzyme which is essential for the production of the connective tissue proteins such as collagen and elastin. Copper works with Vitamin C and zinc to form elastin. Copper supplements are also needed for the development and maintenance of our bones and skin including our blood vessels and joints. Copper is also instrumental in the healing process related with melanin which is the pigment connected with our hair color and skin.


Oriya is an official language of the state of Orissa in India. It is spoken by over thirty five million people all over the world. It is a member of the Indo-Aryan language family and its history can be traced from the days of the Kalingas. Oriya is derived from Magadhi Prakrit and Pali that was spoken across cultures from eastern regions of India over a thousand and five hundred years ago. Though Oriya has a strong resemblance to Bangla and Ahomiya from Assam, it is not influenced by Arabic and Persian despite Orissa’s long rule by the Moghals. Oriya is regarded to be the modified form of Odri Prakrit which is derived from the Bibhashas. Modern Oriya vocabulary is made up of Sanskrit, Hindustani and traces of Adivasi origin. Outside Orissa, there are people speaking Oriya in other regions like the Midnapore district of West Bengal, the Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, the Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Vishakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh and the eastern districts of the Chattisgarh state. History The history of Oriya has been categorised into five main stages – Old Oriya, Early Middle Oriya, Middle Oriya, Late Middle Oriya and Modern Oriya. Old Oriya – The period between the tenth and the fourteenth centuries – The origin of literature can be traced to `Bauddha Gano O Doha’ written by the Buddhist Siddhas of Orissa. The earliest traces can be found on the inscriptions in temples and copper plates. Early Middle Oriya – The period between the fourteenth and the sixteenth centuries – Earliest use of prose can be found in `Madala Panji’ or the `Palm Leaf’ Chronicles of the Jagnnatha Temple at Puri which dates back to the fourteenth century. Middle Oriya – The period between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries – Five poets emerged as the `Panchashakha’. They were Balaram Das, Jagannath Das, Achyutamanda Das, Ananta Das and Josobanta Das. Late Middle Oriya – The period between the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries – A new form of novels in verse form came about in the beginning of the eighteenth century when Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote `Haravali’. Modern Oriya – The period from the nineteenth century till the present day – In the modern period, the first Oriya printing typeset was cast in 1836 by the Christian missionaries who made a great contribution to the language. Though the handwritten Oriya script resembled Bengali and Assamese scripts, the printed typeset adoption leant more towards Tamil and Telugu scripts. Amos Sutton wrote the Bible in Oriya in 1840, compiled an Oriya dictionary in 1841 and wrote `An Introductory Grammar of Oriya’ in 1844. The possible origin of the Oriya language can be found in the script with which the edicts of Ashoka were written about two thousand and two hundred years ago at Dhauli and Jaugada and the inscriptions of Kharavela in Hati Gumpha of Khandagiri. The Hati Gumpha inscriptions that are written in Pali language were perhaps the only evidence of stone engravings. This may be the reason why the German linguist and Professor Hermann Oldenberg mentioned that Pali was the original language of Orissa. Literature Oriya literature has had a varied history through the ages and was comprised mainly of poems and prose depicting religion with the stories of gods and goddesses as main themes until the early sixteenth century. The first great poet in the history of Oriya literature is Sarala Das who is also referred to as the Vyasa of Orissa. His best known works are the `Chandi Purana’ and the `Vilanka Ramayana’ written in praise of the Goddess Durga. Arjuna Dasa’s `Rama Bibha’ is considered as the first epic poem in the history of Oriya literature. In the fifteenth century, the writings of Shri Chaitanya evolved a new form in the Sanskrit style with religious themes. The Panchashakha or the great five poets were the main exponents of religious works in Oriya. Other prominent works are the `Ushabhilasha’ by Sisu Sankara Dasa and `Rukmini Bibha’ by Kartikka Dasa. A new form of verse based novel writing developed during the early seventeenth century after Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote `Haravali’. Poets like Madhusudhana and Sisu Isvara Dasa used simple Oriya to write epic poems based on themes from the Puranas called `Kavyas’. Oriya literature was influenced by the use of verbal wordplay around the turn of the eighteenth century. Upendra Bhanja was a good exponent of verbal wordplay in this period. The tradition was kept alive till the middle of the nineteenth century by poets like Arakshita Dasa and Bhima Bhoi. Another prominent use was that of family chronicles in prose relating to religious festivals and rituals. Major changes came about in the modern period of Oriya literature, mainly in its style. Great poets and writers of the modern era were Rai Bahadur Radhanatha Ray and Fakira Mohana Senapati who is recognised as the father of modern Oriya literature. Their writings introduced a new spirit into Oriya literature and gave it a modern outlook. Modern drama got a good boost with the writing of `Kanchi-Kaveri’ in 1880 by the great playwright Rama Sankara Ray. This spirit was carried further on by modern writers like Nanda Kishore Bal and Gopabandhu Dasa. The novel form in Oriya literature became strong with the works of many great Oriya writers like Umesha Sarakara and Kalindi Charana Panigrahi. Modern style of poetry began with the poet Sachi Kanta Rauta Ray. Other modern poets are Godavarisa Mahapatra and Kunjabihari Dasa. Some writers also made significant contributions by the translation of several classics from Western literature. Prabhasa Chandra Dwivedi was the main facilitator in this process of the reorientation through adaptations. Oriya literature developed further with critiques, essays and treatises. Notable essayists were Girija Shankar Ray and Hare Krushna Mahatab. Dialects Midnapori Oriya is spoken in the Midnapore district of West Bengal. Singhbhumi Oriya is spoken in the East Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. Baleswari Oriya is spoken in the Baleswar district of Orissa. Ganjami Oriya is spoken in the Ganjam district of Orissa and the Srikakulam District of Andhra Pradesh. Desiya Oriya is spoken in the Rayagada district of Orissa and in the hilly regions of the Vizianagaram and Vishakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh. Sambalpuri Oriya is spoken in the Bargarh district of Orissa and by some people in the Raigarh district of Chattisgarh state. Bhatri Oriya is spoken in the south western Orissa and south eastern Chattisgarh. Grammar and Script The modern Oriya script is a development of the Kalinga script. This script actually descended from the Brahmi script. The earliest inscription in the Kalinga script dates from the eleventh century. A notable feature of the Oriya script is the curved calligraphy of the alphabets of those times. This kind of appearance is a result of the age long tradition of writing manuscripts on palm leaves. These leaves have a tendency to tear if too many straight lines are marked on the surface. The writing was done with an iron stylus. Oriya has syllabic alphabets where all the consonants have a distinct vowel embedded within. Diacritics appear above, below, before or after the consonant they belong to. Diacritics change the form of the vowel. When the diacritics appear at the beginning of a syllable, vowels are written as independent letters. When some consonants come about together, special conjunct symbols are used in combination with the essential parts of each letter. Oriya has twenty eight consonant phonemes and six vowel phonemes. Unlike Hindi, Oriya keeps most of the cases of Sanskrit. The nominative and the vocative verbs merge with the accusative and dative. The genders are masculine, feminine and neuter. The grammatical numbers are both singular and plural. The tense covers present, past and future. The Unicode range for Oriya is U+0B00-U+B7F. The Oriya script which is also known as Utkala Lipi can be used for several other Indian languages like Sanskrit and Hindi. Oriya and the Spread of Journalism The first Oriya newspaper to be printed was the weekly `Utkal Dipika’ by Gouri Shankar Ray in 1865. This weekly was a result of the surge in nationalism during the late nineteenth century. This paper played an important role in the socio-political life of Orissa. In the early part of the twentieth century, the Swadeshi movement had gained some momentum and it had a considerable impact on Orissa’s social life. This period was also marked by the spread of journalism in different parts of Orissa. The first Oriya daily newspaper `Dainik Asha’ was published from Berhampur in 1928 by Sashibhushan Rath. This was a turning point in the history of Oriya journalism. It set an example of the power of the press in uniting Oriya people for a cause. In this particular case, it was first the unification of the bordering and outlying Oriya areas under one administration and secondly, it was a great help to the freedom movement. Oriya is a relatively young language in comparison to some other Indian languages. Efforts are being made currently to go ahead with the digitisation of the Oriya language and such attempts will make sure that this unique language will continue to retain its distinct place in the culture and history of modern India.

Experience the Natural Beauty of Vietnam by Train Travel

Those people who are interested to explore Vietnam’s natural beauty and cultural wealth can plan one of their best vacations to connect on a spectacular travel adventure of their lifetime. The journey is incomplete without travelling by train. The classic Vietnam train tour is offered with the great rail journey from Hanoi to Sapa and the magnificent northern parts of Vietnam. Asian Travel and Tours, who are based in Hanoi, will take care of all your Vietnam train bookings and provide you with Vietnam train schedule and Vietnam train timetable. They do this through Vietnam National Railways who have done a lot for the advancement of the rail transportation system in Vietnam. The facilities that are being provided for people preferring to travel by Vietnam train are pre-processed and pre-packaged supply of food to the passengers along with refined mineral water bottles. Other facilities that are being provided are ticket covers, trolleys and plastic cups. There are no better professional tour operators than Asian Travel and Tours who can confirm your Vietnam train tickets easily. The tickets are available at a promotional price being offered by from Hanoi to all other Trans Vietnam cities. Vietnam train is a great option for all travelers to see the countryside of Vietnam by travelling comfortably. You are offered trips on new trains that are equipped with modern air-conditioned cars and berths for comfortable overnight journey. Some trains even have coupes. Vietnam train tickets include government tax and transportation insurance. In addition to the Vietnam train bookings, you can book special promotion tours to reach various tourist destinations in Vietnam through Asian Travel and Tours who are the specialists in train travel all over Vietnam. Vietnam is a land of rich and natural beauty. You will get a good opportunity to experience the picturesque scenery of the whole country if you travel by Vietnam train. Travelling by train is a very affordable way in Vietnam. It will cost you much less than flying or renting a car or going by bus. It is safe and comfortable. You have to be aware of the Vietnam train schedule and the Vietnam train time table to plan your journeys. The major route is between Hanoi and Saigon with stops along the journey at Hue, Nha Trang and Da Nang. For long distance travel, it is advisable for you to use Vietnam train bookings in air conditioned sleeper trains. Soft seats are fine for short distance only. If you are not pressured with time and you are not travelling overnight, then the soft seat is ideal. With air conditioned coaches, you cannot take photographs of the scenery outside. If you would like to record your journey by the Vietnam train, you have to book Vietnam train tickets in non-air conditioned trains. Hard sleepers and hard seats have to be avoided altogether as they are usually crowded and uncomfortable. The best time of the year to travel by train is in the autumn season. The weather is cool between August and March.

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Five Things you may not know about Fat and Dieting

You may be one of the few millions in the world who have resolved at the beginning of the year to lose weight. It is possible that this resolution may not have gone out of the window by now. There will be ideas that you may have on how to lose weight but there is a strong possibility that you do not know the five most important things on dieting and shedding fat. These five important facts can be learnt from Shawn Talbott. He is a nutritional biochemist and author of the `secret of vigor: how to overcome burnout, restore biochemical balance and reclaim your natural energy?’ These facts have been neatly compiled by Elizabeth Goodman Altis who is the Editor of the fitness magazine `Shape’: 1. Fat comes in different colors – Fats have different hues and functions. They are brown, white and beige. The brown fat is dark in color due to the blood supply being rich. This can burn calories instead of storing them. The white fat is pale. It has a low rate of metabolism and it does not help you burn the calories as a muscle does. More than ninety per cent of the fat in your body is white. It is a storing unit for extra calories. The beige is slightly dull in color in terms of its calorie burning ability. Some hormones that are triggered by exercise can convert white fat cells into beige ones and the same can be done by food like hot peppers, brown seaweed and licorice root. 2. The fat on your butt is healthier than the fat on your belly – The visceral fat or the belly fat is responsive to cortisol which is the stress hormone as against the fat on your butt and thighs. When stress is hard on you, the extra calories taken in during this phase are likely to settle around your belly. So, to get the belly fat reduced, you have to learn to cope with stress first. 3. First you burn calories, second you burn fat – The more calories you burn during exercise, the bigger deficit you will generate and will end up losing more fat. Calorie deficit can also be created by reducing your diet intake. 4. Fat affects your mood – When you weigh yourself and see the scale showing higher than before, it may ruin your day. What is making you depressed and irritable is the inflammation of the cortisol cycle that is triggered by the fat around your belly. To break this effect, Talbott suggests that “healthy flavonoids help calm inflammation that leads to more stress.” 5. Even skinny people can have cellulite – The fat that is trapped under the skin brings about cellulite. This is the subcutaneous fat. The dimples are generated by the connective tissues that bind the skin to the muscle underneath and the fat layer is trapped in between. You don’t need to be fat or obese for this to happen. To reduce the cellulite appearance, you can build muscle when you are losing fat.

Classification of Beta Lactam Antibiotics and Mechanism of Action of Benzyl Penicillin

β-lactam antibiotics (beta-lactam antibiotics) are a broad category of antibiotics. They contain all the antibiotic agents which have a β-lactam ring in their molecular structures. For example, all penicillin derivatives like penams and cephalosporins, carbapenems and monobactams. β-lactam antibiotics work by inhibiting the cell wall biosynthesis in the bacterial organism and are the most widely used group of antibiotics. Bacteria often develop resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by synthesizing a β-lactamase, an enzyme that attacks the β-lactam ring. To overcome this resistance, β-lactam antibiotics are often given with β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid. Classification and Sub-Types of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics 1. Penams - 1.1.1 β-Lactamase-sensitive 1.1.2 β-Lactamase-resistant 1.3.1 Carboxypenicillins 1.3.2 Ureidopenicillins 2. Cephems - 2.2.1 With anti-Haemophilus activity 2.2.2 With anti-anaerobic activity 3. Carbapenems 4. Monobactams 5. β-Lactamase inhibitors Mechanism of Action of Benzyl Penicillin Benzyl penicillin is also known as Penicillin G. It is given typically by injection parenterally as it bypasses the intestines for the simple reason that it is unstable in the acidic stomach. 6- aminopenicillanic acid Penicilloic acid Route of elimination - Penicillin G is eliminated by the kidneys. Non-renal clearance includes hepatic metabolism and biliary excretion. Impact Ratio - Normal renal function is around 10 minutes. Clearance is 560 ml/ minute. Toxicity - Oral LD50 is 8900 mk/kg. Organisms that are affected by it - Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria Therapeutic Uses Benzyl Penicillin is given therapeutically for:- • Cellulitis • Infective Endocarditis • Meningitis • Aspiration pneumonia • Lung abscess • Community-acquired pneumonia • Syphilis • Septicemia in children • Septic Arthritis • Gangrene • Diphtheria As far as the antimicrobial potency of benzyl penicillin is concerned, it is effective against all gram-positive organisms – for example, Neisseria Gonorrhea. Adverse Effects of Benzyl Penicillin Common adverse reactions for benzyl penicillin and β-lactam antibiotics include diarrhea, nausea, rash, urticaria and candidiasis. Frequent ADRs include fever, vomiting, dermatitis and angio-edema. Pain and inflammation at the injection site is also common for parenterally administered β-lactam antibiotics.

Good Music not only heals the body but the soul too

Many music therapists have told that a Mozart symphony a day will keep the doctor away as the apples have lost their touch. Listening to Bach, Haydn or Mozart can help you to improve your mental abilities. It has already been proved that this kind of music not only helps cows give you more milk but also provides physical relief to patients who are suffering from numerous ailments. Neurologists have reported that music not only helps in soothing the soul but it also helps in providing relief to specific physical and mental symptoms in your body. Music therapy has been a part of the healing cultures for many centuries now. The Greek father of medicine, Hippocrates, played music in order to help heal his patients faster. It was only few decades ago that medical institutions started harnessing the skills of musicians and took them around to hospitals where the wounded and ailing people were helped to come out of their physical and emotional trauma. Almost all universities in the Western World have music therapy departments. The university patients who are under the assessment of neurologists and psychologists are provided specific pieces of music which is loaded on to iPods or any other music storage device. A scientific study that made many people sit up and take notice was when Dr. Frances Rauscher at the University of Wisconsin found that subjects showed considerably better spatial and temporal reasoning skills after they were made to hear the A Major Adagio from Mozart’s Clarinet Concerto. This study was done about two decades ago and was published in the `Nature’ Journal. This was popularly labelled as the Mozart Effect and it is being used in various non-musical applications ranging from classrooms to healing clinics. Spatial reasoning is a crucial area which is helpful for thought processing and thinking. It is the skill that people use when they are confronted by the complexity of the tasks they face in a selected time period. To cite an example, if you are told to fold a piece of paper into the shape of a boat in a limited amount of time, you will use spatial reasoning to move forward and will have to take a decision on whether you will begin by folding the left corner to start with or the corner to the right. How does good classical and spiritual music have an influential effect in the realm of spatial reasoning? It happens because of the progression of notes into a melody that can soothe and boost the nerves at the same time. A solo clarinet will not have the desired effect as much as an ensemble would be able to do. Music and organized music does have an effect on the organizational architecture of the cerebral cortex of the brain. Dr. A.K. Sharma is trying to bring music therapy into India. He advises patients suffering with migraine to listen to the second movement of Chopin’s Second Piano Concerto. He realised that the patients became calmer after listening to the music and it helped alleviate their pain. Listening to classical music transforms your life. Your psychological horizons tend to expand and you start to like finer things in life. It helps to bring your stress levels down and also helps in controlling your pulse and heartbeat. It has also been proved that listening to classical music has increased the level of melatonin and, at the same time, reduces the levels of adrenaline and hypertension. In cases where there were problems in the normal growth of a fetus inside a womb, exposure to classical music helped show an improvement. When pregnant mothers listen to classical music, their babies inside tend to gain weight. This has been published in the `Science’ Journal. Classical music has had a positive effect on epileptic patients. The number of convulsions and their severity were reduced as indicated by Dr. John Jenkins from the University of London in 2001. People tend to listen to vulgar, chaotic and fast music which has continuous elementary beat to it. This music will increase the stress and tension in your life despite being hummable. It is music for entertainment of the body or for the shaking of legs and hips but it is definitely not for the nurturing of your soul.

Getting Rid of Clogged Drains

If you are experiencing clogged drains quite frequently in your house, you can usually fix it temporarily with Alka Seltzer tablets and white vinegar. Take two Alka Seltzer tablets, place them into the clogged drain and then pour one cup of vinegar down the drain. After about fifteen minutes, you can pour boiling hot water over it. Your drain should be considerably free of clog after that. This is not a permanent cure. We are always there to get rid of clogged drains in your house for you. We may need to clean the traps, vents and the piping pitches. Should you note that your toilet, bath, shower, bathroom sink and the kitchen drain are all clogged; then, it is possible that the main drain is blocked. Most of the clogs pile up around the stopper in your kitchen sink, the bathroom sink and bathtubs. You can try removing the strainer and cleaning it. Usually, hair will clog around the strainers. You can do this on a regular basis. Another good tool for clogged drains is the plunger. If the blockage is not too far into the main drain, a plunger can do the job. If the blockage is far, then don’t mess with it. Call us. Before using the plunger, it is effective to block any overflow holes by stuffing wet rags into them. These holes are mostly located opposite the faucets. If there is not much standing water in the basin, run some water to collect for two to three inches over the drain hole. This water will aid in forcing the obstruction out of the drain.

The Mandatory Brake Override System

The brake override system which is proposed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is a good safety tool. Many people panic while driving if they have to stop the car in a hurry. 99.9% are comfortable to stop their car instantly when they become fluent behind the wheel but 0.1% probably requires this brake override system. Common sense may guide us to press the brake pedal if we have to stop the car instantly. But there are slim chances that our reflexes may be slow at the moment of demand or we may push the wrong pedals in panic. It is recommended that these override systems be implemented. The vehicles today are already quite complex; so, with a little addition of complexity, it is not going to tax your car further. Most of the new cars are already using drive-by-wire systems which involve a software change that instructs the car’s system to cut the throttle and let the car stop should both the pedals be held down in confusion. Mostly, the pedal sensors and the basic electronics are already doing this job. This software technology was brought out by Bayerischen Motor Werke (BMW) for their performance driving. It was first used in the BMW 750 series in the nineteen eighties as a performance enhancement tool for the heel-and-toe race style of driving in which the driver used the heel and toe of one foot to control two pedals at the same time such as the clutch and the brake. This brake override system is bound to save many lives. If it is set up properly, it will allow for brake and throttle applications like starting on a hill and in off-road use. It is not going to hinder the driving experience in any way. For people who are irritated at this system being made mandatory by the NHTSA, the manufacturers can cater to the whims of such people by introducing an on/off switch.

Saturday, October 28, 2017

Franz Kafka Metamorphosis A Review

Franz Kafka was a Czech writer and one of the most influential exponent of Existentialist works. Helmut Richter was an expert essayist on literature from the Existentialism Period and he was a Marxist. Richter was astounded by the mechanics of Kafka’s writings and the way he used his words. Richter describes the work as the protagonist’s failure at what he was doing, leading to his death. The climax of the work is hinted at, quite early in the book. When Gregor wakes up one morning, he realises that he has turned into a giant cockroach. Gregor had been working as a salesman and his job demanded much determination to succeed. Kafka proves that Gregor failed in his duty as a salesman, particularly by getting transformed into a giant vermin – suggesting a strong work force. This metaphor stresses on the mediocre work that Gregor was putting in as a salesman. Richter argues that Kafka has reflected part of his personal life in the `Metamorphosis’. It can be considered as a semi-autobiographical work. The parents of Kafka were similar to that of Gregor. He was raised up in a wealthy family and his father was quite an overbearing man. Kafka’s mother was a pleasant woman, similar to that of Gregor. Another striking resemblance of the families is that of the sister. Like Gregor’s sister, Kafka’s sister was the only one in the family who was supportive of him. Richter admired the self-depiction which was included in this work. The ‘Metamorphosis’ is one of the most regularly analysed works in literature. It documents the transformation of Gregor Samsa from a man into an enormous cockroach. The work is known to inspire various exclusive interpretations. It is considered as one of the central riddles of modern literary imagination. Kafka is praised for his symbolic portrayal of alienation that he achieves through the literalised metaphor of man as an insect. In the synopsis, Gregor is initially shocked by noticing the change in his body form but settles down to start worrying about missing his train to work, lamenting in the background the ennui and the boredom created by his job and at the place of work, which he considered necessary to pay off the debts accumulated by his parents. To do a thematic analysis of the `Metamorphosis’, we need to focus on the symbolic and the psychoanalytic side or the allegorical nature of the story. The theme of alienation from humanity has to be viewed as the central theme of the story and interprets Gregor’s transformation as something of a fulfillment of a wish or as an extended metaphor. There is a deep resentment on Gregor’s part in connection with supporting his family. Gregor turns into a parasite with the desire to be nurtured by his parents in return. This takes place in an entomological sense. Gregor’s transformation is an extended metaphor which is carried from an abstract concept into concrete reality as he is trapped in a meaningless job while being isolated from real people around him. Gregor starts to imagine himself as a vermin at some point of time in his life and finally becomes one, physically. Kafka died at a young age of forty one due to tuberculosis. He could not digest the food he was eating and could not even swallow water down his throat. There is sustained realism in his work that contrasts with the fantastic occurrence of his transformation into an insect. The problematic features of this great work continue to challenge the readers even today. A single reading of this work by Kafka will not give you a total understanding and each return to the book will encourage the study of the deep meaning hidden in it. It is an existential account of the predicament of modern man. Kafka is seen as a Jewish mystic who is drawing on the Kabbalah traditions to create texts whose meaning is revealed only to those who are initiated. `Metamorphosis’ is considered by Richter as a modern kind of reworking of the `Pilgrim’s Progress’ of John Bunyan, with the characters embarking on a spiritual journey through a secular world. To understand the work, we have to understand Kafka first. He led an alienated life as an outsider in the Jewish community. He perceived human beings as being trapped by authority in a hopeless world. He was frustrated by the drudgery of supporting his family. He had to work in a meaningless bureaucratic job and this reflected in two other masterpieces of his – The Castle and The Trial. He hated being a pencil pusher. In his character build up of Gregor Samsa, he represents a specific type of behaviour and that is the fear of being alive with all the rewards and risks involved, while embracing an authentic code of behavior which finally has to accept, even after transformation, all the vicissitudes that life offers.

Tuesday, October 24, 2017

Unidentified Flying Objects seen around the Sun that come right out of Star Trek Episodes as Galactic Obliteration Devices

Images captured through a National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) and SOHO iPad application have revealed unidentified flying objects, akin to Star Trek `Borg Cubes’ episodes, coming out of the surface of the sun. This phenomenon has been sighted twice, a few days ago as per The first sighting was at 1300 hours on 29th April 2013 and the second sighting was done at 0106 hours on 30th April 2013. SOHO is the official Nascom site that gives information on the mission being carried out on the space-born solar observatory. Attention could be drawn to which had reported similar sighting as mentioned in the `UFO Sightings Daily’ site on 14th November 2012, just a week before the Mayan apocalypse day for the world. When we look at these shots here,, we wonder whether these UFOs are trying to send across any message as galactic devices. These cubes are going round the sun and they could even head toward planet Earth. On deeper probing, it has been ascertained that these shots are not the effect of pixilation but instead, they are images of real spacecraft type bodies of mammoth proportions that are surviving the heat emitting from the sun. These images bring to mind the combined beliefs of the Luciferian Liberation Front (LLF) and the Pagan Gnostics that GOD is going round the sun in the shape of a gigantic cube. GOD stands for Galactic Obliteration Devices here. In fact, Luciferian Liberation Front has sent its interpretation of the Bible in its report to `UFO Sightings Daily’ a couple of years ago, mentioning this galactic obliteration device. This is a fascinating interpretation of the Book of Revelations from the Bible, Chapter 22, when it describes the New Jerusalem as the `City of God’ in the shape of a giant cube that comes down from the heavens. The Luciferian Liberation Front (LLF) have taken these references and tries to explain heaven as a gigantic source of psychic energy that emits from all souls gathered there to turn Earth into hell with the eventual annihilation of the human race. The LLF goes further in pointing out that the Book of Revelations goes to describe the descent of `New Jerusalem’ that would coincide with `a new heaven and a new earth’ and `no more sea’. The Pagan Gnostics also believed that organized religion is a spurious version of spirituality with a humanized shape of regressive aliens or a man who is artificial. These giant cubes seen around the sun have sides roughly about one thousand five hundred miles across them and the images have revealed that there is not one cube but many cuboids going round the sun. Is there any link to the appearance of these cubes reminding us of the Mayan Pyramids and the ending of the Mayan Calendar? Scott Waring, the founder of the site, `UFO Sightings Daily’ feels that these cubes are circling round the sun to harvest energy. A point to ponder!

Etiopathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus

What are the complications? The basic phenomenon in diabetes mellitus is the destruction of the beta cell mass that leads to deficiency of insulin. There are three linked mechanisms in the Etiopathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. The first is genetic susceptibility; second is auto immune factors and the third is environmental factors. In genetic susceptibility, it has been observed in identical twins that if one twin has DM, there is more than half a chance of the second twin developing it. Studies on both animals and humans have shown various immunologic abnormalities as far as auto immune factors are concerned. There is presence of islet cell antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase and insulin. There is occurrence of lymphocytic infiltrate around the pancreatic islets and this is known as insulitis. Environmental factors include some viral infections that precede the onset of the disease like mumps and measles. Early exposure to bovine milk proteins leads to auto immune processes and chances of DM setting in. Obesity and hypertension and lack of physical activity play an important role in modulating the disease. Complications of Diabetes Mellitus The complications are less severe in people who have blood sugar levels that have been well controlled with medication. Wider health problems start creeping in with deleterious effects of diabetes including smoking, elevated cholesterol levels, obesity, hypertension and lack of regular exercise. Mechanisms of Chronic Complications Chronic elevation of blood glucose levels leads to damage of blood vessels and this is known as angiopathy. The endothelial cells that line the blood vessels take in more glucose than normal as they do not depend on insulin. They form more surface glycoproteins than normal and cause the basement membrane to grow thicker and weaker. These are related microvascular diseases when there is damage to the smaller blood vessels and macrovascular diseases when there is damage to the arteries. It has been recorded that forty per cent of all people suffering with diabetes mellitus develop neuropathy even after controlling their blood sugar levels. Auto immune relations destroy the beta cells of the pancreas and they may also cause retinopathy and nephropathy. Genetics also play a role in causing complications. Severe type of chronic complications may lead to diabetic cardiomyopathy, causing damage to the heart muscle. This leads to impaired relaxation and filling of the heart with blood. This is known as diastolic dysfunction. This is the eventual reason for heart failure. Diabetic nephropathy damages the kidney and leads to chronic renal failure. Diabetes mellitus is a common cause of kidney failure in adults in the developed world. Diabetic retinopathy results in growth of poor quality blood vessels in the retina and there is a mascular edema or a swelling of the macula, leading to loss of vision or blindness. Another complication is the diabetic foot which results out of a combination of sensory neuropathy and vascular damage. It also increases risk of skin ulcers and infection, leading in extreme case to necrosis and gangrene. This is the reason why diabetics are prone to more leg and feet infections and why it takes very long for them to heal from such wounds. Restrictive lung effect is known to be linked with diabetes mellitus. It could result from chronic low grade inflammation of tissue and micro-angiopathy.

Existentialism and the Role of Jean Paul Sartre

Existentialism is a movement in literature that tries to describe the intent of the writers to make decisions which are rational despite being present in a universe which is irrational. The forerunners in the concepts of Existentialism were Kierkegaard, Dostoevsky and Nietzsche. Existentialism sprang from the radical ideas of these two individuals. It was Jean Paul Sartre who declared Existentialism and he was influenced by Marxist ideologies. His interests were more inclined towards politics than on philosophical theories. Camus and Samuel Beckett diverted themselves to the Theatre of the Absurd. They felt that Existentialism was more methodological than being philosophical. Albert Camus called Existentialism a `philosophical suicide’ when pondering on the subject of life: “I call the existential attitude philosophical suicide. How else to start from the world’s lack of meaning and end up by finding a meaning and a depth to it?” - Albert Camus as paraphrased; Introducing Existentialism; Appignanesi, p. 36. What is Existentialism? It is an intellectual movement that found its expression in literature, philosophy, politics and religion just after the Second World War. It is a response to times of anxiety; a period in which collectivism and war weakened the conventional beliefs of people in progress and made them doubt the general theories of truth and goodness. This movement was an attempt to find new platforms of truth and values for people - "a lonely anguished being in an ambiguous world." The most popular and influential exponent of existentialism is Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), a French philosopher, novelist, playwright, and political activist. Sartre and Existentialism Sartre’s approach was with a secular orientation. He took an atheist stand and rejected the belief in God or the supernatural power. The concepts stayed centred on the human situation. He rejected the abstract and the rationalistic views of the world that defined the human essence. He spent much time in the deduction of the purpose and values of human existence. He felt that existence was more important than essence. He said that the human conditions, a collection of actions and experience, defined human nature. We are what we make of ourselves. Humans, on an individual basis, are the creators of all values and whatever meaning it gives to life. Humans have to act and then exercise their choice. Individuals can be totally free by acting alone in the face of the forces of evil, death and despair. For Sartre, freedom was the greatest good. It was not a negative release. Sartre proposed a courageous and irrational affirmation of responsible truth against meaninglessness and death. He fought during the Second World War with the French resistance and was even taken prisoner by the Germans. When he was released, he wrote, `Being and Nothingness’ in 1943. This was his major philosophical work. He expounded the Existentialist concepts in several plays. The best known play is `No Exit’ of 1945. In 1964, he declined to accept the Nobel Prize for Literature for the political implications of that award. He always remained a critical supporter of the communist causes post Second World War. In 1945, he also founded the literary and the political Quarterly known as `les Temps Modernes’ (The Modern Times). In this Quarterly, he continuously derided those writers who believed in pure literary art and his primary attack was on Marcel Proust whom he called an accomplice of bourgeois propaganda’. He dismissed Gustave Flaubert as a `talented coupon clipper’. He did not like their art for art’s sake theories. He argued in favour of literature `for engagement’. His thoughts ruffled many a feather in the French literary scene. He was not well known with the English speaking audiences.

Forex Scalping Technique to make a good fortune

There are many ways that you can try to make a good fortune with forex scalping. You require a good technique to trade swiftly so that you can make money irrespective of what time of the day it will be. A good forex scalping system will help you to do the trades in an organized way by holding the trading positions for a short period of time, constant monitoring of the price and collecting quick gains. The forex scalping system controls the small price gaps that are created by the bid ask spread. The bid ask spread is the price quoted for the immediate sale and purchase of the position. The size of the spread is dictated by the size of the transaction cost. You can use different scalping systems to scalp the market within a short time effectively. You have to buy and sell currencies quite rapidly when you use a forex scalping strategy. The idea is to restrict your losses on trades that go bad and increase your gains on better investments. There are many indicators that can help you to gauge the trends in the currency rates. One method is to grab the important news that are released on a periodic basis and pick the most influential ones that are expected to affect the market. You can gauge which currency pair is going to be influenced. This method helps in creating large pip movements in both directions and you will be able to get in and out of the trade at a very minimum risk in a short time. A good technique is the minute scalping one involving pivot points. The idea behind this forex scalping technique is pivot points which are at levels of support and resistance. This will help you to take away the available profit and close the trade within a minute. No system is without a pitfall and you have to be careful to make it good with any forex scalping system. The forex scalping system methodology is dependent on quick price calculation. You could speculate where the prices will head in a matter of minutes and for that you will have to depend on the foreign exchange scalping indicators. It is not easy for you to predict the closing prices exactly because of the fluctuating nature of the market. However, if you have to depend on a good forex scalping system, you will have to rely upon information and modifications every now and then. You can also rely on the forex scalping indicators. You can focus on the GDP, inflation percentages, interest levels as well as the rate of unemployment to guide you with the indicators. These are all factors that can shape the trends of the movement of currencies of any country. Its quick trading characteristics have made Forex scalping to gain high popularity these days. It allows you to make small profits while exposing your trading account to a very limited risk. An automated system that can help you make transactions on your behalf will help you succeed in forex scalping.

The Dual Mode Transport Trend will Grow

One of the more interesting trending concepts that came out sharply from the Beijing Auto Show that concluded yesterday was the development of vehicles that will offer dual mode of transportation. It means that cars would also include another sort of transportation medium device. Since the advent of the automobile industry, congestion has grown in urban areas as the car ownership got higher and higher. Parking spaces became scarce and expensive in the cities. All countries, including China, are facing congestion and pollution issues on a worrying scale. The Chinese consumers are very keen to understand the concept of a basic car including another small electric transportation device that is likely to offer them a satisfying solution to commuting. In China, the number of bikes that run on electricity is already growing. Bikes are going to become the main medium of China’s transportation scene in the near future. There are projects on the way that are projecting a main lead vehicle like a commercial van that will be given a control which is going to be semi-autonomous to allow the driver of the said vehicle to perform other actions that would normally not be possible for safety reasons. Sartre has taken out such a project on semi-autonomous driving concept. There are many human factors that will have to be taken into consideration when developing semi-autonomous driving. The driver will have to be totally aware of the situation around him and how the system will perform and the key question that is going to be raised is whether the driver, who is going to become passive, will be able to keep up his or her driving ability. The transportation options in the future, nevertheless, are going to rise. Cars may only be a part of the solutions when new models of personal and public transport will evolve like the electric scooter, Toyota’s iReal, the Segway and many other four wheelers. The biggest concern for the introduction of these kinds of systems will be the issues of liability and regulations with approvals in the jurisdictions of individual countries. A small electric vehicle built into a car will be a fine solution to the problem of urban pollution. With this background of changing needs of transportation, BMW and Geely have proposed cars that will offer dual modes of transportation. When the Auto Show was held in China in Shanghai last year, Geely displayed its McCar. This car was a purpose-made dual-mode comprehensive package of an electric car and a tricycle electrical vehicle combo. The McCar is going into production soon. Some of the versions of the McCar may include a fold-up bicycle and a wheelchair. This is still in the prototype stage but Geely is proactive and as a far sighted vision that will make dual mode transport to ultimately become a necessity for many people in China and the rest of the world. If these modes are offered in the market today, there is going to be an overwhelming demand. When Geely makes the dual mode system a reality, it will be introducing the secondary mode of personal transport into the lifestyle of a person and with options like wheelchairs and built-in ramps, it is going to be a perfect solution vehicle as a companion for people who are handicapped and cannot be mobile. BMW’s i8 Concept Spyder will carry two three-wheeler electric scooters in the rear. The importance of the eDrive concept as a car with a team of electric scooters at the back will prove that BMW is looking way ahead in terms of dual mode transportation.

Sunday, August 20, 2017

Dandelions with Double Heads found in Minamisoma near Fukushima

Recent pictures have shown double-headed dandelions growing in Minamisoma as a result of the Fukushima fallout. This is a dangerous mutation scenario. Minamisoma is a small town on the Coast of Japan, situated about twenty five kilometers north of the collapsed nuclear reactor site of Fukushima Daiichi. Before the terrorising tsunami struck this area on 11th March, 2011, it was surrounded by hundreds of thousands of hectares of rice paddies and lush flora. Some people have reported that the area resembled a carpet of gold in the fall. The farms in this region have now gone barren and the green houses are in ruins. Bales of hay are rotting in the snow. Where will these Fukushima related anomalies lead us to, with scenes of double-headed dandelions and mutant rabbits being born near Daiichi?

Four different types of renal stones

There are four main types of renal stones:- 1. Calcium stones Most kidney stones are made of calcium compounds, especially calcium oxalate. Calcium phosphate and other minerals also may be present. Conditions that cause high calcium levels in the body, such as hyperparathyroidism increase the risk of calcium stones. High levels of oxalate also increase the risk for calcium stones. 2. Uric acid stones Some kidney stones are made of uric acid, a waste product normally passed out of the body in the urine. You are more likely to have uric acid stones if you have low urine output and with a diet high in animal protein, such as red meat. 3. Struvite stones Some kidney stones are struvite stones. They can also be called infection stones if they occur with kidney or urinary tract infections (UTIs). Struvite stones can be serious, because they are often large stones and may occur with an infection. 4. Cystine stones Less common are kidney stones made of a chemical called cystine. Cystine stones are more likely to occur in people whose families have a condition that results in too much cystine in the urine (cystinuria).

Is it going to be Flats or Heels for Your Wedding Day?

Right from the first step that you take down the aisle to that moment when you finally make your getaway with the groom after the reception, you will be on your feet. Think about that before you take a decision on whether it is going to be flats or heels for your wedding day. Flat shoes may edge out the heel ones as they will definitely make you feel extra comfortable on your feet, particularly if you are not accustomed to wearing high heels for a long period of time. Finding platform heels may be a little difficult in wedding shoes reference. On the flip side, there is an advantage offered by heels of reasonable height. The extra width offered by shoes that have heels may just about give your feet the right kind of support that they need for helping you to stand with a steady pose throughout the ceremony. For wedding shoes reference, you may have to keep in mind that slender heels may not work out that well in an area like lawns where there is grass or stones; there could be sand or soil in terrains that are unsteady. If you are going to be on a concrete and steady floor all the time, then you can go for slender heels. For the sake of wedding shoes reference, an argument could be made in favour of both the heels and the flats at the same time. There is a chance that you could fall in love with a good pair of heels but you also want to dance at your wedding reception wearing flats. So, you may consider buying both. You can kick your heels away after the ceremony and switch over to the flats for the reception and the dance. Here, you have to make sure that your dress can measure up for the difference between the height of the heels and the flats. You certainly do not want to fall or trip over your wedding gown on the dance floor.

Saturday, August 19, 2017

The Driving Academies of Mercedes Benz

The Mercedes Benz Group has started offering courses on driving for its regular customers. These customers will include people who have bought the models of Mercedes. Their families will be eligible to participate in these academies. The courses will be based on the programs that have been developed and provided by the German Division. They are starting these driving academies in the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Europe and Australia. At their driving academies, the organizers are of the feeling that the earlier the people begin to drive when they are young, the safer they will be on the roads. The preference is, therefore, being given to younger people so that all the opportunities will be provided to them to get adequate experience by the time they come of age and be licensed to drive. Age is not going to be a criterion for the first Silver Level of entry. You just have to be one and a half meters tall to enter into the driving academy and start the lessons to help gain confidence and become a safe driver all your life. The `First Gear’ or Silver Level course will aim at drivers who are young. The next phase will be the `Mercedes Benz Driving Experience’ which will enrol drivers who are twenty five years of age or above. The course will cost three hundred and fifty dollars. The criterion for entry will be the possession of a driving licence. The motivation for the drivers will be their keenness to go through the driving experience of a selection of Mercedes’ models under the tutelage of a team of drivers who have been trained professionally. The classes will be maintained in small sizes, not exceeding thirty participants. This will be done to make sure that all students will get proper and focused attention. All negative habits that have been picked up by the participants in connection with their driving will be identified by the team of trainers. The exercises during the classes have been organized well and they will stretch over six hours in duration. The lessons will include braking to a sudden stop after maintaining high speed. The students will also go through under steering and over steering conditions, particularly on wet and snowy surfaces. The curriculum of the Mercedes Benz Driving Academies will be based on the latest ideas on driving techniques. The curriculum will cover a comprehensive step-wise system that will offer one hundred and ninety varieties of driving skills. The curriculum has been laid out to offer the participants the best possible training for the roads. The beginners will start at the Silver Level and concentrate on the basics of driving like the checks prior to driving, the controls of the car and adjustment of mirrors and seats. This will gradually progress to forward movement, steering and reversing. All the exercises will be demonstrating the importance of following safety systems inside the car. For example, the trainers will be explaining the functions of the braking system and the anti-lock mechanisms. The students will also learn about the latest developments within the Mercedes Benz Group like their cruise control techniques (Distronic Plus) and active lane assistance procedures where the proper application of brakes will be taught to keep cars in line based on the side they are on. The Mercedes Benz Driving Academies all over the world are confident that even experienced drivers will come out of the academies better informed.

Thursday, July 20, 2017

Business Firms Shifting their Focus to Advertorials to Boost their Sales

Business firms are now shifting their focus from just plain commercials or infomercials to advertorials. They are using them to boost their sales more than the other means of advertising. It has been proved that display advertising modes in newspapers and even online banners on home websites have been mostly ignored by consumers and prospective customers. Media placement services of advertorial agencies help many business firms through their network of consulting services. They save much time and money for the companies. Companies can buy paid articles to be placed in the media. The editorial committee of advertorial agency assigns a professional journalist to review a company’s products or services. Advertorial Agency specialise in managing the entire advertising campaign for small and medium sized business firms to magnify their marketing exposure in the mass communication media that includes television, radio, websites, magazines and newspapers. They distribute information about the particular products or services of a company to millions of potential readers. They use their media placement service to release the news online which provides effective search engine marketing at cost effective levels. This media placement tool gives you a real chance of creating a buzz around your news release to attract more customers. It has become a very effective press release distribution service for many business companies. Its guaranteed delivery offers both Canadian and international media firms with an easy access to your advertorial news item. These news items will reach out to newspapers, publishers of magazines, radio and cable television stations, independent journalists and new search engines across the web. Many news items have been re-published by bloggers who have gone through the published news items of advertorial agency through their news distribution services. A business company can approach advertorial agencies to get their business marketed with them. A professional writer will be sent over to cover the particular business. Most of these writers are qualified journalists and researchers who have a business administration and marketing related background. Advertorial agencies have experience in soliciting advertising from businesses not only in Canada but from all over the world. How does this work? Owners of websites and blogs get additional revenue through It is becoming difficult nowadays to generate sufficient advertising revenue. They offer space on their websites to the Agency for posting their advertorials. They are written from a first person’s perspective coming out of a journalist’s mouth to provide his or her opinion about a business and the products or services that it offers. Marketing campaigns that utilise blog posts and advertorials can boost business sales. These advertorials are not generic in nature and they are written by people who often relate their actual experience of using the products or services offered by a business. Advertorial follows a business model that makes sure that all the parties involved benefit in the end.

Drugs given in hypertensive emergencies

There is a hypertensive emergency when severe hypertension is associated with acute end-organ damage. Examples of such cases are hypertensive encephalopathy, acute pulmonary edema and aortic dissection. In many cases, administration of an intravenous sodium nitroprusside injection has an immediate effect. In lesser urgent cases, oral parenteral drugs such as captopril, clonidine, labetalol and prazosin may be given. When compared with sodium nitroprusside, these drugs have a delayed onset of action by several minutes. Nitrates such as nitro vasodilators (nitroprusside or nitroglycerin) provide nitric oxide to induce nitro vasodilation of both the veins and the arteries to activate calcium-sensitive potassium channels in the cell membrane.

Everything you wanted to know about the Private Investigative Profession

How do you go about becoming a detective in a particular niche? A private investigator needs to have a bold personality. This particular profession is involved with heavy amount of thinking and working with various ideas. A detective has to encounter interaction with people and extraction of facts every day. Thus, a detective has to be attentive, sharp and manage his or her time skillfully. People skills and good communication skills are essential for a detective. The detective should be in a position to communicate both verbally and in writing effectively. The detectives have to be comfortable when speaking with suspects, victims and witnesses. While doing that, they have to be alert and pay great attention to details and show a compassionate sense towards victims or suspects. The career of a detective demands discipline honesty and integrity. In addition, the detective needs to be physically fit. The most important requisite for this profession is the passion to seek out justice with a knack of joining the pieces of a puzzle. The basic requirement of the profession is to investigate, solve the crimes and bring the criminals to justice. Detectives can specialise in various types of investigation, particularly in such violations as homicide, fraud and theft or sex crimes. Many detectives work for private firms while others are employed by the local, state or the federal agencies. A detective has to use modern gadgetry and telecommunication equipment along with sophisticated computers to help in the solving of crimes that can range from theft to kidnapping and from drug trafficking to mass murders. Evidence has to be gathered by keeping an eye on the possible suspects, interviewing the witnesses or the victims and investigating the facts or figures that have been extracted during the questioning sessions.

Study Reveals that Neglect of Using Turn Signals has become Dangerous

People have been brooding about distracted driving but neglect of turn signals has turned out to be more dangerous. A study has revealed that neglecting to show proper turn signals has been responsible for over two million accidents every year and that figure is more than twice that of the accidents that are due to driving in a distracted way. The survey was done by the Society of Automotive Engineers and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. There is a brand of people who do not believe in using the turn signals regularly. They will simply forget to use the signals while they are changing lanes or taking turns and if they do turn the signals on, they may forget to turn them off. The failure rate for not using the signals when taking a turn is around twenty five per cent. This translates to about two billion times a day around the world or seven hundred and fifty billion times in a year. The solution to this neglect is through the use of the `smart turn signals’. These signals use sensors to shut the turn signals off before they become unsafe or a hazard to other drivers on the roads. The engineers are also thinking in terms of developing a `turn signal assist’ feature that will display the car information and caution the driver if he or she fails to use the turn signals regularly or forgets to switch them off in time. When the engineers provide such features in the car, there is not going to be an extra cost added to the bottom line value of the car as the system will be using such sensors that would have been already taken into integration into the module for stability control. This indifferent attitude of not using proper turn signals could be because of poor training or a total lack of courtesy. Sometimes, it may be due to the absence of civic sense. The police authorities have also not put in any effort towards enforcing penalties on the neglect of using proper turn signals.

Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Healing Secrets of Lemon that you did not know about

Lemon belongs to the family of citrus fruits. It has been in use for more than twenty five centuries. The lemon tree is native to South East Asia and it has its origins in India. In addition to being consumed as a fruit, it was also used for medicinal purposes to treat various infections or as an antidote to poison. The Roman Emperor, Nero, used to consume generous quantities of lemon as immunity against possibly being poisoned by his numerous enemies. Besides boosting immunity, lemon has been recommended down the ages for digestive tract treatment, urinary tract infections, anxiety, insomnia, acne and dementia. The fruit contains Vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, potassium, limonene, citric acids and bioflavonoid. In the eighteenth century, the Royal Navy had successfully used lemons to fight scurvy which resulted out of a deficiency of Vitamin C. The benefits that can be derived from lemon are countless. The world is not fully aware of the healing secrets of the fruit. The Healing Properties of Lemon • Antiseptic - Lemon acts as a natural antiseptic for the skin. It can prevent acne and heal the scars that result out of acne. A cotton ball soaked in lemon juice could be applied on the infected area on the face. The burning sensation actually is the beginning of the acne healing process. Lemon has also cured people of eczema. It immediately reduces the scratching urge. It is used widely as a remedy for revitalizing the skin cells. • Anti-Oxidant – It helps fight cancer cells, helps wounds to heal faster and can even help to treat heart ailments. People with heart ailments can be treated with lemon juice for its high potassium content. Lemons are a blood purifier and help the body to remove toxins. The acidity of raw lemon juice lowers the impact of any meal on your blood sugar. Lemon can also be used to fight against hypertension, in combination with garlic and onions. • Astringent - It can help control the gums from bleeding because of its astringent properties. • Alkaline – It alkaline properties help in the fight against cancer and various other illnesses. Although acidic to taste, lemons help to push our bodies to the required pH alkaline state of around 7.4. These properties help against excessive acid in the body that leads to rheumatism. A few glasses of diluted lemon juice are a good remedy for rheumatic fever, painful joints, lumbago and sciatica. Lemon juice is rich in Vitamin C and helps the body to absorb calcium and fight osteoporosis. Two tablespoons of raw lemon juice diluted in a glass of warm water is good for pregnant women as it helps build the bones in the child developing in the womb. • Detoxification – Raw lemon juice cleanses the kidneys and the digestive system. It helps the body in the removal of toxins. It even helps in removing excess radiation from the body. If you have gone through chemotherapy sessions, lemon juice taken regularly can help rid the body of any remaining radiation. Lemon also helps eat away plaque from veins and arteries and is antioxidant to help stop cancer cell growth. • Cures Asthma – A half teaspoon of lemon juice with lukewarm water taken before a meal provides quick relief to asthma. Starting the day with it on empty stomach and repeating it as the last dose in a day gives positive results. A glass of lemon juice diluted with some water also helps cure travel sickness and nausea. • Anti-bacterial - It can heal sore throats and severe colds because of its anti-bacterial properties. Lemon has always been used to treat chills and fevers. Lemon squeezed in a cup of water with honey has given strength to people suffering from fever and chills. These properties can also help in the healing of cankers. Fresh lemon could be squeezed into a glass of lukewarm water to rinse your mouth. Doing this frequently during a day helps in the healing of cankers. • Anti-obesity - It can help you to lose weight if you take a few drops of lemon with honey in lukewarm water, first thing in the morning. The pectin in lemon peel is a great source of fiber that helps people in losing weight. • Vessel Strengthening - People who suffer with spider or varicose veins can use lemon for its vessel strengthening properties. Few drops of lemon oil with avocado oil or almond oil can be used to massage the affected areas. Few drops of lemon oil to a warm bath can be good enough to rejuvenate your veins. • Fights Bad Breath - Lemon has been used to fight bad breath People who like to eat spicy food or smoke too many cigarettes can rinse their mouth several times a day with a glass of lukewarm water and a freshly squeezed lemon in it. It will also help them with salivation and prevent bad breath. • Soothes the Nervous System - Lemon has a soothing effect on the nervous system; it can help fight dizzy spells, anxiety, nervousness, exhaustion, and tension. Research has indicated that that inhalation of lemon oil can result in better concentration. • Strengthen Hair - The external use of raw lemon juice makes hair shinier and stronger. • Valuable Properties as an Extract - Lemon is known as a powerful aromatic and as an internal cleanser that can be used to complement many other oils. Diffusing lemon in a room can cleanse the air and uplift your mood. It can also be used on surfaces throughout the home as a non-toxic cleaning booster. The common uses of lemon essential oil are to disinfect living areas and dissolve synthetics in the body. It also helps in the healing of gout. In addition to being an elixir for its medicinal qualities, lemon juice can also be used domestically to disinfect surfaces and help in the removal of stains. It is used by many people as an insecticide to ward off mosquitoes, flies and other insects. Cotton balls soaked in lemon oil could be kept in the bedroom or the living room to ward off all kinds of insects.


Emphysema is a progressive disease that stretches on a long term. It affects the lungs and causes shortness of breath. People who suffer with emphysema have their lung tissues damaged. The physical shape and the functioning of the lungs get affected. Emphysema is included in a group of diseases that are known as COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lung tissues around the smaller airways known as bronchioles get destroyed. The airways are not able to hold their shape when people exhale. This makes them inefficient when they transfer oxygen into the blood and take out carbon dioxide from the blood. Etiology Cigarette smoking is the major factor for the development of emphysema. It is also a preventable cause. Cigarette smoke causes mucus secretion to be increased while the ability to clear he secretion is reduced. This resulting buildup of mucus provides bacteria with a rich source of food and leads to infection. The immune cells in the lung try to prevent and fight this infection but they are also negatively affected by the cigarette smoke. Other risk factors include a deficiency in an enzyme called alpha-1-antirypsin. Other minor factors are air pollution, reactivity of airways and heredity. Air pollution works in the same manner as the cigarette smoke. The pollutants cause inflammation in the airways and destroy the lung tissue. Bronchial asthma leads to abnormal airway reactivity. Men are more likely to develop emphysema than women. Symptoms Shortness of breath is the most common symptom of emphysema. Cough is caused by the production of mucus and wheezing may also be present in emphysema. You may notice that your tolerance for exercise decreases over time. Emphysema usually develops slowly. You may not have any acute episodes of shortness of breath. This is especially the case if you are a smoker or have other medical problems that limit your ability to exercise. Treatment Treatment for emphysema can take many forms:- • Doctors could recommend people with emphysema to stop smoking. • Bronchodilator drugs – These medications cause the air passages to open fully and allow better exchange. This is considered as the first line treatment of emphysema. • Mucolytic tablets – These are drugs that make the mucus and phlegm in the throat thinner and it is easy to cough it out. • Steroid medications – They decrease inflammation in the body. They are given either as tablets or they could even be inhaled through an inhaler. • Antibiotics – These drugs are prescribed for those who are going through severe shortness of breath. • Oxygen – Extreme cases of breathing difficulty may lead to treatment by oxygen supply. Sometimes, it will even become necessary to place a tube in the windpipe and allow a machine to help with breathing. • Pulmonary rehabilitation – People who suffer with COPD are recommended pulmonary rehabilitation through education and exercise. It helps in improving their mobility, capacity to exercise and their confidence.

Electronic Communication Network

All market makers in forex trading are not the same. Once you have made up your mind that a market maker is your only choice to access the forex market to trade, the ECN brokerage is the most reliable. A market maker is a brokerage company that is available to do trading with a fixed bid and ask price. There are three different types of forex brokers. • Electronic Communication Network • No Dealing Desk • Straight Through Processing Of all these three types, the ECN forex broker provides the purest form of forex trading. It is the closest you can get to forex trading in the market on level with the central banks. The ECN broker charges spreads for services on each trade. It is because of this charge that there is no conflict of interest which is found in most forex trading models at the retail level. When you open a position with an ECN forex broker, this is sent straight into the interbank market where it will be matched with an opposing order from another market trader like yourself. This is similar to the way the futures markets function in a central exchange. The ECN forex broker acts as a counter party to the transaction. The broker matches buyers and sellers in the interbank liquidity market for transparent trading. The broker will also offer variable spreads instead of fixed spreads and these spreads vary depending on the currency market. Both volatility and volumes are subject to fluctuation. The prices that are quoted will be quite close to those being traded. This way, the ECN forex broker makes his or her profit from the commission on the trade and not by adding a margin on the spread. This removes the conflict of interest issue, allowing you to trade in the interbank market at true market prices and in real time. These are the advantages of using an ECN forex broker: • Trading is done by using the best bid and asking quotes that are live and direct from the interbank market. • Spreads are tight, going down even to zero at times. • The forex broker will not take a position against you or manipulate the price feeds. • The broker will not take out your stops. • The price quoted will be more volatile and quite helpful for scalping strategies. • There is direct access to the interbank market for forex real time trading. These are the disadvantages of using an ECN forex broker: • The forex demonstration platform may be more complicated and not designed easy for some retail traders. • The brokers may not offer free forex charts. • There will be limited trading signals and facilities such as trading tools and news feeds. • There is a spread commission on each trade. So, with an ECN trading model, there is no price manipulation and the traded prices are a true reflection of what the currency markets are doing at any given point in time. ECN forex broker is rapidly becoming popular because of the increased reliability and transparency.