Friday, March 17, 2017

Windows Cleaning

Washing windows of your home requires devotion and time. Windows are great as they allow fresh air and sunlight. If they get dirty, they can become weak and can be damaged easily. Though it is wiser to contract cleaning service providers for your windows, it is better to know how to clean them. If there are any sliding windows, they have to be removed by lifting up from the sliding section to be cleaned separately. A bucket can be filled with warm water and some detergent could be added to it. The windscreens that hang to the windows have to be removed. They collect most of the dust from the rainstorms that knock against the windows. The stale screen smell will also go away once cleaned. They can be cleaned by rubbing them together under a running hose. The window panes could be gently rubbed with a rag. The window frames can be cleaned by means of a soaked sponge or a cloth. The sponge or cloth has to be soaked in the bucket with the detergent and water solution and the cleaning of the windows can start from the upper left side, going downwards in the shape of an `S’ until the bottom right corner is reached. The sponge should not be of an abrasive material to avoid scratching the windows. A dry rag or chamois can be used to remove the excess water from the squeegee. The cleaning can start again from the upper left corner in a straight line downward in one motion, repeating it to the mid and the right sections of the window. The squeegee has to be dried after each stroke or it will leave behind visible lines on the window pane. After the window panes are cleaned, they can be dried with a chamois or a dry cloth. An extension handle can be used on the squeegee to reach higher windows. The squeegee cannot be used in direct sunlight as it will leave streaks. Tools that are needed for cleaning of windows - A sponge, squeegee, chamois, bucket, water hose, lint free dusters,detergent, warm water, towel and a mop. How long will it take to clean your windows? The complexity and the size of the windows will determine the time that will be required to clean them. The security bars and the storm windows take up extra time. If there are multiple panes in each window, they will take up detailed work. A typical home will probably take up about half a day by the cleaning service people. The service provider will be able to give a better estimate of the time required to complete the cleaning job. How often should you have your windows cleaned? Professional cleaning service maintenance contracts clean about twice a year. This schedule should be sufficient. If your home is exposed more to the pollution of urban life, then perhaps you may want to get the windows cleaned thrice a year. Cleaning in early spring will get all the dirt and grime removed by the winter rain and frost. A wash in the fall will take care of the pollen and the dirt of summer. Why is Professional Cleaning Service required for the Windows? When you take the height, accessibility and the configuration of windows into account, it is wiser to assign the job to the cleaning service providers. Apart from these factors, time is of a very important essence. People do not have the time to get the cleaning done on their own. Window cleaning is important to keep the home clean and tidy. You will not like to look at windows that are full of dirt or fingerprints. Many people find cleaning of windows difficult. It is mainly because even after the hard labour, they end up finding some streaks left behind on the window panes. How much does it cost to get your Windows cleaned? Professional cleaning service jobs for windows can be paid by three methods. The first method is per unit or window; the second method is by the total job on a contract basis and the third method is on an hourly basis. The common method of pricing has been the first one and that is charging as per the number of windows or units.

What is plasma half life of drugs?

It is the time that is required for concentration of a drug so that it falls to half of its initial concentration after reaching its peak level. The duration of action of a drug is known as its half life. This is the period of time required for the concentration or amount of drug in the body to be reduced by one-half. We usually consider the half life of a drug in relation to the amount of the drug in plasma. Onset, duration and intensity of effect of drug depend on the rate of absorption, distribution and elimination through excretion. In case of oral route, plasma concentration gradually rises and reaches its peak value; then, it begins to fall down. Drug requires a minimum effective plasma concentration for the effects to start appearing. Once the level falls below the minimum effective plasma concentration, the effect is over.For example, after intravenous administration, if maximum concentration is 16 mg and the half life is 2 hours, after 2 hours 8 mg will be left, and so on.

Tips for Natural Anti Aging Treatment

There is no magical formula for you to go after if you want to look young eternally. There are, however, gifts from nature itself for coping with anti-aging. It is safer to ignore the dangerous side effects of various chemical products as anti aging solutions to look after your skin. You will also be saving much on the cost of skin care. There are some treatments that can be advised for natural anti aging. Problems will frequently accompany the process of your growing older day by day. Sometimes, the best answer to such issues is the probable use of the simplest anti aging solutions. You can achieve reverse aging by the help of natural anti aging supplements like red wine, papaya, avocado, magnesium, fish oil and olive oil. The list of anti aging supplements can begin with the use of red wine as an antioxidant. It contains `resveratrol’ which is considered as one of the best anti aging solutions. This component can reduce the aging process of the body cells and help fight against weak bones, making it ideal as an anti wrinkle treatment too. Papaya is a good moisturizer as it contains a decent amount of Vitamin C and minerals along with Carotene. It is quite easy to apply without the need for mashing or mixing like some other natural remedies for reverse aging use. You just need to peel off a part of its outer skin and then apply it to your face. This application will open up the pores of your skin to leave it feeling glowing. It will lighten your skin if you apply papaya regularly. One of the best natural anti aging gifts blessed by nature is the avocado. It is great for those kinds of people who are conscious of their beauty image as it contains Vitamins A, B, D and E collectively. It also has fats to make it a natural moisturizer. Though, making a face mask out of an avocado could be tedious, it is still worth your while. You have to take a ripe avocado and scoop its soft flesh. Then, you have to mash it and apply it gently on your face. This has to be left on your face for about ten minutes and then washed away by means of a damp cloth. Avocado oil can also treat eczema apart from being a natural anti aging agent. To delay the effects of aging, one of the best anti aging supplements is the magnesium mineral. You have to just include it in your daily diet. It helps you in maintaining high levels of energy and keeps your digestive system effective. With magnesium, your skin looks healthier. You have to take sufficient magnesium levels as a supplement for anti wrinkle treatment through almonds, peanuts and brown rice. Fish oil serves as a good reverse aging supplement. It contains the Omega -3 fatty acids which also reduce the risk of heart disease. Oil found from cold water fish like salmon, mackerel and tuna is the best. You have to remember that you cannot take an overdose of fish oil in a day; the intake has to be less than three grams. Olive oil contains linoleic acid and Omega-6 acids. It helps the skin in staying hydrated. It is a good natural anti aging medium to moisturize the skin on your face and to increase its elasticity. The advisable mix is 10 ml. of olive oil with a couple of drops of carrot seed oil. You can massage on to your skin and use warm water after a minute to rinse the oil off. Many people want to go for natural anti aging therapy so that they can avoid cosmetic surgery which is very expensive and also is not free of side effects that can bother them. Most of the natural anti aging treatments are safe and also less expensive for you to look young and maintain your required levels of energy.


Nepali is an Indo-Aryan language that is spoken in Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar. Why is it considered an official language among the twenty two languages in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian constitution? This is because it is the official language of the State of Sikkim and is also spoken partially in Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal. It is also widely spoken in the State of Uttaranchal and Assam. Nepali is also known as `Khaskura’. Nepal is named after the Kathmandu valley and the term `Nepali’ is used historically for the language of that valley. Nepali is the official language of Nepal and Sikkim. Half the population of Nepal speaks Nepali as its mother tongue. Many other Nepalese speak it as a second language. It is also called `Gurkhali’ or the language of the Gurkhas or `Parbatiya’ which means the language of the mountains. `Khaskura’ is the oldest term which literally means speech of the `Khas’ people who were Indo-Aryan settlers in the Karnali-Bheri basin of far western Nepal since early historic times. Their main occupation was to grow rice. The Indian government has given an international recognition to the Nepalese language. Ethnologue reports that there are more than seventeen million speakers of Nepali worldwide, eleven million being Nepalese themselves. In India too, there are a large number of Nepali speaking people. There are an estimated half a million Nepali speakers in Sikkim alone. In both Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts of West Bengal, there are about one and a half million Nepali speakers. A sizeable number of Nepali speaking people are also present in places like Kolkata, Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai and Hyderabad. About five hundred years ago, the `Khas’ people migrated to the eastern part of Nepal from the western regions, crossing the rough terrains of the Kham highlands to settle down in the lower valleys of the Gandaki Basin which was suitable for the cultivation of rice. Out of this group came the Gurkhas, named after Gorkha, a principality halfway between Pokhara and Kathmandu. About three hundred years ago, a ruler named Prithvi Narayan built an army of Gurungs and other tribesmen from the hills and set out to annexe many principalities in the Himalayan foothills. As the Gorkhas had replaced the original Khas tribe and their homeland as the centre of military initiative, Khaskura came to be known as Gurkhali. Prithvi Narayan’s special military achievement was the annexure of the urbanised Kathmandu valley on the eastern section of the Gandaki Basin. This region came to be known as Nepal during these times. Kathmandu became Prithvi Narayan’s new capital and the following generations extended their lands eastward into the Kasi Basin, north to the Tibetan plateau and southward into the northern Indian plains and west to the Karnali-Bheri Basin. The expansion to the north and west brought a lot of tussle with the British and the Chinese territorial aspirations. This led to many wars and these tribes were pushed back to form what is roughly Nepal’s present borders. Around this time, Gurkhali came to be known as Nepali. Nepali is the eastern most of the Pahadi languages. They are a group of related languages that are spoken across the lower Himalayan range from eastern Nepal through the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. The influence of the Nepali language can also be seen in Bhutan and Myanmar. Nepali began its development in close relationship with a number of Tibeto-Burmese languages. Nepal Bhasha shows a lot of Tibeto-Burman influence. Nepali is also closely related to Hindi but sounds more conservative, borrowing few words from English and Farsi and also using more Sanskrit derivations. No other modern language is close to Sanskrit than Nepali. Nepali settlers who lived in the southwest of Bhutan started speaking a variant of Nepali and called it `Lhotshampa’. They were generally classified as Hindus. Some were even Buddhists. Both these groups abstained from beef and later became total vegetarians. Their main festivals were Tihar and Diwali. The Nepali language has been popular in its continuity of communication between all language speakers since the creation of greater Nepal. The Nepali language had spread into use among the Brahmaputra regions in the east and Kashmir in the west. The linguists regard the stone inscription of Adityabanshi King Damupal, which dates back to 1040 BC, as the official source of Nepali language. An inscription on the copper plate of 1280 BC is historical evidence of King Krachalya’s victory to create the Sija regime. Bhujimol is an older script that is native to Nepal. Today, Nepali is commonly written in the Devanagiri script. There is a record of using the Takri script in the history of Nepali, particularly in western Nepal, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. Ranjana script is another writing system used historically. Nepali developed its literature during the latter half of the nineteenth century and includes great works like the `Adhyatma Ramayana’ by Sundarananda Bara in 1833. Another famous work is `Birsikka’ which is an anonymous compendium of folk tales. Ramayan by Bhanubhakta is also famous. There were many translations of works from Sanskrit and a translation of the Bible in Nepali. The Nepali language being used in the Kirat era until 1380 BC indicates King Simrangaud Harisingh Dev’s book, `Barnaratnakar as the earliest form of literary Nepali. The kings and rulers of Nepal relied on the Nepali language for interstate use as in sending of letters, agreements and treaties. Nepali is a language which gives a subject-object-verb word order and uses postpositions instead of prepositions. It has a limited grammatical gender and in many cases, the gender agreement is limited to the written form of the language. In Nepali, some of the adjectives are inflected as per the genders. Nepali nouns do not inflect for cases, but there are a number of postpositions that have a case-like function. These postpositions are known as clitics. They are affixes which are attached to an entire phrase rather than a single word. Nepali has an expansive pronouns system depending on the distance, gender and number of the referent. With the third person pronouns, the low grade is used when the person is not present. It is also used for small children and animals. The middle grade is used primarily for women although one of the plurals of the middle grade pronouns is also commonly used for groups. It is also used for adolescents and teens. The high grade form is used for people who are present and for older people. There is an additional form for extremely formal situations. The Nepali verbs are highly inflected and they agree with the subject in gender, number and person. They also inflect for aspect, mood and tense. There are a large number of participial forms in addition to these inflected finite forms. Nepali has two infinitives. The first is the citation form of the verb and is used in several constructions, the most important being the construction expressing obligation. The second infinitive is used in a wide variety of situations and can be used generally in a similar fashion to how an infinitive is used in the English language. There are only three initial consonant clusters found in Nepali. Such consonant sequences are found only in the onomatopoetic words. These initial consonant sequences within a syllable show that in typical Nepali syllable structure, sonority increases from the first consonant to the syllable nucleus. The second consonant is a lateral liquid sonority. The third consonant is the high front glide whose sonority is still higher. The syllable nuclear sound vowel after the glide has the highest sonority peak. Nepali has syllable-timed rhythm. It has iambic foot and the metre is from left to right. There are a dozen vowels in the Nepali language. Nepali words with nasal vowels may initially prove to be a bit difficult. Medial clusters are made up of sequences of consonants between two vowels in the word-medial position. Nepali follows the generalization of Halliday hinting that the speaker is confident of the proposition of the sentence. No significant research has been done on the intonation system in Nepali in detail. With the advancement of technology, many applications and letters, particularly in the government sectors, are printed in Nepali Font. So, for such governmental activities as well as for own knowledge and use, it has become necessary to know how to type in Nepali Font. For this purpose, many Nepali fonts such as Preeti, Sagarmatha and Kantipur are available. But, they might be hard to learn at the beginning as it is difficult to figure out which English key in your keyboard represents what character of Nepali Language. So, to make it easy, Romanized Nepali Unicode is available on the web. The main feature of this Romanized Nepali Unicode is that it is very easy to figure out which English key means which Nepali character. You have to just Romanize the Nepali world you want to type.

Why Indians prosper abroad more than in their own country?

Indians have succeeded in countries abroad and have not done so well in their own. This fact would have shocked leaders of our independence movement. They had declared that Indians were looked down upon by foreign rulers and could flourish only under self-rule. The harsh reality today is that Indians are successful in countries overseas but failing in India. They are prospering in countries abroad. The citizens who stay and work in India are pulled down by an unconscionable system that fails to reward talent. This outrageous system fails to allow people and businesses to grow and keeps real power with `netas’ and assorted hooligans and manipulators. Once Indians go abroad, they rise to peaks that were once occupied only by foreigners. For example, Rono Dutta had become head of United Airlines from 1999 to 2002, the biggest airline in the world. Had he stayed in India, he would have had no chance in Indian Airlines or even Air India. Even if the top job there was given to him by some godfather, a team of `Babus’ and trade unionists would have ensured that he could never run it like United Airlines. Rana Talwar was appointed Group CEO of Standard Chartered Bank Plc, one of the biggest multinational banks in Britain, while still in his forties. Had he been in India, he would perhaps be a local manager in the State Bank Group, taking orders from several Babus to give loans to politically favoured clients. Lakhsmi Mittal has become the biggest steel baron in the world with steel plants in the US, Kazakhstan, Germany, Mexico, Trinidad and Indonesia. India's socialist policies reserved the domestic steel industry for the public sector. So Lakhsmi Mittal went to Indonesia to run his family's first steel plant there. Once freed from the manacles of India, he ruled the world. Subhash Chandra of Zee TV has become a global media king, one of the few to beat Rupert Murdoch. He could never have risen had he been limited to India, which decreed a TV monopoly for Doordarshan in the days that mattered. But technology came to his aid and satellite television made it possible for him to run business in India from Hong Kong. Apart from all these personalities, Silicon Valley alone contained over one hundred thousand Indian millionaires. Sabeer Bhatia invented Hotmail and sold it to Microsoft for $400 million. Victor Menezes is number two in Citibank. Shailesh Mehta is CEO of Providian, a top US financial services company. While Indians have soared abroad, India has stagnated at home. At independence, India was the most advanced of all colonies, with the best prospects. Today with a GNP per head of $3500, it occupies a lowly 161st position among 226 countries of the world even though the total GNP at 793 billion dollars makes India the 10th largest. But poverty is by no means the only or main problem. India ranks near the bottom in the UNDP's Human Development Index but high up in Transparency International's Corruption Index. The lack of transparent rules, properly enforced, is a major reason why talented Indians cannot rise in India. A second reason is the neta-babu raj, which remains intact despite supposed liberalisation. But once talented Indians go to rule-based societies in the west, they take off. In those societies, all people play by the same rules, all have freedom to innovate without being strangled by regulations. And this is why Indians like to hold a green card or citizenship anywhere else apart from Independent India.

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

What is Amyloidosis?

Amyloidosis is a rare disease that results from the buildup of displaced proteins known as amyloids. When proteins dissolve in water to become amyloids, they become insoluble and deposit in organs or tissues, disrupting normal function. Three Types of Amyloidosis There are four main types of amyloidosis, each due to the deposition of a specific protein. 1. The most common type is AL amyloidosis, caused by the deposition of light chain proteins produced by plasma cells in different disease states. 2. The second most common is AA amyloidosis due to the accumulation of S amyloid A protein or SAA, which occurs in association with chronic infections - e.g. tuberculosis - or inflammatory illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis. 3. The third type is due to the deposition of a genetically defective or normal form of a protein called transthyretin. Pathogenesis The cells in the body have two different ways of making proteins. Some proteins are made of one single piece or sequence of amino acids; in other cases, protein fragments are produced and these fragments come and join together to form the whole protein. Such a protein can sometimes fall apart into the original protein fragments. This process of "flip flopping" happens frequently for certain protein types, especially the ones that cause amyloidosis. The fragments or actual proteins are at risk of getting displaced as they are synthesized, to make a poorly functioning protein. This causes proteolysis, which is the directed breakdown of proteins by cellular enzymes called proteases or by intra-molecular digestion; proteases come and digest the displaced fragments and proteins. The problem occurs when the proteins do not dissolve in proteolysis. This happens because the displaced proteins sometimes become robust enough that they are not dissolved by normal proteolysis. When the fragments do not dissolve, they get spit out of proteolysis and they aggregate to form oligomers. The reason they aggregate is that the parts of the protein that do not dissolve in proteolysis are the β-pleated sheets, which are extremely hydrophobic. When they are exposed to water, these hydrophobic pieces tend to aggregate with other hydrophobic pieces. This ball of fragments gets stabilized by GAGs (glycosaminoglycans) and SAP (serum amyloid P), a component found in amyloid aggregations that is thought to stabilize them and prevent proteolytic cleavage. The stabilized balls of protein fragments are called oligomers. The oligomers can aggregate together and further stabilize to make amyloid fibrils. Both the oligomers and amyloid fibrils are toxic to cells and can interfere with proper organ functioning.

Charles Baudelaire Hymn to Beauty An Interpretation

There is a famous remark by Baudelaire that beauty is always made up of two elements. One is its timelessness and the other is its peculiarity when it is specific to the present moment. For example, a true painting of modern life as per him had to cover something which is both transient and exclusive to its own time frame and something which is indeterminate in both space and time. The intangible something goes much beyond our fashions and belongs to the imaginary world. The Hymn to Beauty is reflecting on the outer shell of beauty which is fragile. It can hold power but it can also become easily disfigured. It can never be fully understood. It remains mysterious. “Pure mirrors that make everything more beautiful: My eyes my wide eyes by the light eternal!” This shows that without mirrors (eyes), beauty would not be the light eternal that it is. The representation of art and beauty by Baudelaire in his poetry is unique in its own way for it embraces the French ideals of its decadent period. The reader is meant to understand art better in Baudelaire’s paradoxical representation and his overall personification in his Hymn to Beauty. The paradox is in the juxtaposition that beauty can also be found in all forms like wretchedness, well-being, goodness and baldness to name a few. Baudelaire is trying to demonstrate that the purpose of beauty cannot be determined by the form it takes but by the immediate experience of it that makes life what it is. The initial stanza of the poem begins by asking beauty itself with a question whether it arrives from heaven or hell. In the final stanzas, Baudelaire states, “Bestows both crimes and kindnesses” and therefore “acts on us like wine”. Here, the poet is representing beauty both as being fickle and unpredictable. By writing “your eye contains the evening and the dawn”, the poet is trying to show how time is not affecting beauty because it presents both day and night. “That can make heroes cold and children warm” shows that beauty can provide mercy to the helpless and yet wears away while being powerful. This uses imagery effectively to present a vast spectrum of the whims of beauty. The fourth stanza, in particular, is dedicated to the awful ways of beauty. The main purpose is to present beauty in a way that is often not associated with it. It is to say that beauty should not always be sought in good but also in evil; in fact, he poet tries to say that beauty may come out more from its evil associations. The fifth stanza presents two moments related to death, associating the horrible side of beauty; it is explained with poetic imagery and with a deep meaning. First, it is done with Mayfly’s demise “in flames, blessing this fire’s deadly bloom” – the image of a candle which is momentarily bursting in light, assigning meaning to the death of the mayfly. The second illustration can be shown - “the panting lover bending to his love” shows beauty in love and in the bond which the lover has with a departed person by stroking the corpse of his lover “like a dying man who strokes his tomb.” It gives significance to a moment which may not be considered pleasant by many. It is in reality an awful moment. The final two stanzas talk about how the broad range of forms that beauty can take will not be of great matter by saying, “what difference, then, from heaven or hell.” In whatever form beauty is experienced by a person, its purpose is to make “the world a less dreadful place and the time less dead.” The poet brings the paradox out with a twist that even in darkness and death, beauty makes the moment less horrible and adds meaning to that particular moment.