Acute respiratory distress syndrome is caused pulmonary edema that becomes protein rich. It causes severe hypoxemia and an impaired carbon dioxide excretion. The clinical disorders that are associated with ARDS include
• Aspiration of gastric contents
• Major trauma
The lung injury is caused mainly by neutrophils-dependent and platelet-dependent damage to the endothelial and epithelial barriers of the lung. Resolution is delayed because of the injury to the lung epithelial barrier that prevents removal of alveolar edema fluid and deprives the lung of adequate facilities of surfactant. Lymphocytes play an important role in the resolution of the lung injury. With a lung protective ventilatory strategy, mortality is considerably reduced.
In the acute phase of ARDS which lasts in the first week, there is evidence of interstitial and alveolar edema with accumulation of neutrophils, macrophages and red blood cells in the alveoli. There is also evidence of both endothelial and epithelial injury. In the sub-acute phase that lasts during the second week of the syndrome, some of the edema is reabsorbed and there is evidence of attempts at repair with proliferation of alveolar epithelial type II cells. There may also be infiltration of fibroblasts and some evidence of collagen deposition. In the chronic phase after a couple of weeks, there is resolution of acute neutrophilic infiltrate with more mononuclear cells and alveolar macrophages in the alveoli. In many patients, resolution progresses without fibrosis and simply with gradual resolution of the edema and acute inflammation.
Norway does not come to your mind immediately when there is a mention of cruises. Yet, the fjords of Norway, its fingers, have fishing villages that are picture perfect with some dramatic waterfalls. All nature lovers would like to book a cruise to the Norwegian fjords as these deep water bodies are a perfect way to relieve your anxieties and stress.
These fjords are carved inlet glaciers that come into the western coastline of Norway. The Norwegian mountains are rising steeply to each side of the coast with waterfalls that cascade. The towns by the waterside are pretty. It is a lovely feeling to explore these fjords in a cruise ship that can enter deep. The larger ships will not be able to do that. The small cruise ships can also drop anchor close to the shores. Many tourists prefer to visit the fjords on a midsized vessel. In addition to the fjords, other highlights of the cruise are the Grieg Museum at Bergen, Mount Dalsnibba at Geiranger, Hellesylt Waterfall at Hellesylt, Arctic Cathedral at Tromso and the Art Nouveau District at Aalesund.
Some of the popular cruise operators to the Norwegian fjords are Mundy Cruising, Fred Olsen Line, Hurtigruten Tours, Crystal Cruises, Azamara Cruises, Holland America Line and Oceania Cruises.
The Norwegian fjords are well known for their breathtaking landscape. This has come about due to the mighty glaciers cutting in to the coastline over thousands of years. The region is characterized by overhanging cliffs, exciting waterfalls and rock walls. Working ships are operated to cruise the entire length of the Norwegian coast. The duration of the cruise is mostly twelve days. It starts from Bergen and ends at Kirkenes.
The main focus of this cruise is to see the landscape which is spectacular. The ports of call are up and down the coastline of Norway. The highlight of the cruise is Bergen, the old capital city of Norway. It is the birthplace of the famous Norwegian composer, Edvard Grieg. You will also be reminded of the great film, `Song of Norway’ when you visit Bergen which has both Renaissance and Mediaeval buildings. The natural splendour of this region exceeds all other sights.
Bergen has a historic hanseatic port. The Hanseatic League was formed to protect the economic privileges in the cities along the trade routes spreading from the Baltic to the North Sea. This city was founded by King Olav Kyrre in 1070. The first capital of Norway was Trondheim. Bergen became its capital in 1217 and remained for the next eighty seven years when Oslo became the capital in 1300. The primary reason for the importance and growth of Bergen as a city has been due to the dried cod trade from the northern coast.
Bergen is surrounded by seven mountains. Mount Ulriken is the highest mountain at seven hundred meters above sea level. For lovers of music, the cruise operators do include a visit to Edvard Grieg’s house in Bergen which is later followed by a pianoforte concert at a lakeside. The house has become a museum and it is full of scores of music sheets and information on Grieg’s life. He is also buried in the vicinity of the house.
Geirangerfjord and Naeroyfjord are both popular and have been declared as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. These fjord cruises are mainly operated during summer between June and August when the climate is warm after the winter snow has melted and you will be able to see the rolling green hills. The weather is warm in July and August when the daylight hours are the longest. Naeroyfjord is regarded as the queen of the fjords. It is situated in the south east of Bergen. It is totally surrounded by mountains and marvellous glaciers. There are many fjord villages with their orchards. Geirangerfjord has many waterfalls and farm hills. There is a well known golden route mountainous road with the sharp Trollstigen road with hairpin bends offering a breathtaking view of the fjord. The Geirangerfjord has a lovely mountainous backdrop and a `Seven Sisters’ waterfall. The fjord is sixty two miles in length. Sognefjord is the longest navigable fjord in the world. It is surrounded by high hills and steep waterfalls.
Some voyages have an option to conclude at Copenhagen or Stockholm instead of Kirkenes. The port of Kirkenes is turning out to be an important one for vessels that are conducting seismic explorations in the Arctic. This northern Norwegian town is close to the gas and oil fields.
You will not forget your holiday amidst the Norwegian fjords with their unique sights. Norwegian fjords are one of the greatest cruise destinations in the world.
What is waste management? It involves collection, processing, disposal and monitoring of waste materials. Material gets wasted on and after use through human activity. Management of waste becomes essential to reduce the ill effects of waste material on human health as well as the health of the environment.
Waste management solutions can vary for both developed as well as developing nations. They can vary for urban and rural regions. There is difference between the disposal practices for residential and industrial sectors. Local government authorities manage the non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan regions. The responsibility for hazardous waste and industrial or commercial waste falls on national and international controls.
Waste can be defined as unusable material that is discarded by residential, commercial and industrial users. Waste can be slotted into several categories. It could be household waste, kitchen waste, discarded and degraded waste, commercial waste and hazardous waste. These categories could overlap. Household waste could be of a hazardous nature. For example, unwanted products that are of a corrosive, flammable or reactive nature are types of household hazardous waste.
Waste management strategies involve reducing, reusing or recycling the waste. Landfills are probably the major disposal channels for all types of wastes in the United Kingdom. They will be responsible for over eighty per cent of the waste streaming in the country. Waste materials are piled up in an abandoned places like the borrow pits, mining voids or the quarries. The material is then buried for disposal with time. If the landfill is managed well, it can turn out to be a hygienic and less costly channel of waste disposal.
The biggest benefit of waste management is that it aims to reduce pollution in the environment. If waste is discarded without discipline and mindlessly, it can pollute air and water and pile up severe negative effects on the environment as well as the health of the people. It is essential for people to be conscious about the way they handle commercial waste or hazardous waste in their house or at the place of work. The responsibility of safe and proper waste disposal should begin with residential and business owners.
People who have been involved in accidents with red cards accumulated from the police authorities by way of penalty points may find the going tough for them as they will be categorized as high-risk drivers. They will face high insurance premiums. Even young drivers without much driving experience are likely to pay higher premiums. The traffic statistics suggest that this driver segment may be more accident prone.
Dangerous drivers will be paying more in insurance premiums in the future besides being penalized by the usual fines. The premiums are based on the standard car models and the depreciated value of the vehicle. The standard cost of insuring a car can vary between five to eight per cent of the car’s value. Premiums are worked out on the basis of several factors to make sure that they reflect the individual risk situation correctly. How much a car owner will pay probably depends on the credit record that he or she has. It is also going to depend on where he or she parks the car overnight and whether the car is liable to be vandalized or be prone to thievery.
The insurance market in the western countries is a little more advanced than the eastern countries in its premium structure. In the United States of America, the rating is based on the car owner’s individual profile and the car make or its model is not the only influencing factor in working out the insurance premium on a comprehensive basis.
In the last few years, few insurance companies have begun to look into an advanced approach by taking into account extraneous actuarial risk factors that can have an impact on costs and those include the claims experience and the history of the car and its owner.
Many multi-national insurance companies have made alterations in the premium rating structure and as the years go by, the premiums are going to be based less on the type and value of the car. There is another aspect to the consensus that safe drivers should not be penalized with high premiums to compensate for the negligent ones so that the drivers will be motivated to develop safer driving habits.
The actual premium is going to depend on the car owner’s history of driving and it will also consider no claims discounts and the profile of the vehicle. The pricing model of the insurers is also going to take into account the country where the initial driving licence was obtained in. Options will be offered for agency repairs, off-road coverage and new replacements. There is a general feeling that average priced cars are much affordable to insure than the fancier luxury cars.
The minimum insurance cover required by law is the third party liability with coverage or damage to others’ vehicle or towards bodily injury treatment or death of the aggrieved party. However, the third party liability will not allow people to avail of crucial benefits like a personal accident policy on self or damage repairs to your car. The policy will not cover the driver or the occupants of the car. At the time of renewing the insurance policy, a good way to get a discount is to prove that you follow safe driving rules and that there have been no claims in the previous years.
Portfolios today include investments that are mostly stocks, bonds and mutual funds. There are securities such as options that also offer investors a whole world of opportunity to expand their investment portfolios. Their power lies in their being versatile. They allow investors to adapt and adjust their position based on any situation that may arise in the financial market.
What is an option?
An option is a kind of a contract that will give a buyer the right to buy or sell a particular underlying asset at a specified price but it cannot be treated as an obligation on or before a specified date. As in the case of a bond or a stock, an option becomes a security.
Calls and Puts
The two kinds of options available are puts and calls. A put will give the holder a right to sell a particular asset at a specified price within a fixed period of time. A put is similar to maintaining a short position on a particular stock. A buyer of a put will hope that the price of that stock will go down before the option gets expired.
A call will give a holder the right to purchase an asset at a fixed price within a time period that is specified. A call is similar to maintaining a long position on a particular stock. A purchaser of a call will hope that the stock will go up considerably before the option gets expired.
There are four kinds of participants in the markets of options based on the position that is taken. They are buyers and sellers and pits and there are buyers and sellers of calls. Those who purchase options are known as holders and those who sell these options are known as writers. Buyers have long positions and sellers have short positions.
The price at which a particular underlying stock is bought or sold is known as the `strike price’. This is the price that a stock has to go above in the case of calls or go below in the case of puts before a position could be exercised for making profits. All this has to take place before the date of the expiry of options.
The option is supposed to be `in-the-money’ for call options if the share price is above this strike price. A put option will be `in-the-money’ if the share price goes below the strike price. The amount by which options are `in-the-money’ is generally known as their intrinsic value. The total price of an option is known as its premium. This price is established by factors that include the strike price, the stock price, volatility and the time that remains until the time value or expiration.
Reasons for investing in Options
There are two primary reasons why investors use options. They are speculation and hedging. Speculation could be treated as betting on the movement a security will take. The advantage of using options is that investors are not limited to making profits only when the market tends to go up. On account of their versatility, investors can also make profits when the market tends to go down or sideways. Success comes when investors are able to predict correctly whether a stock is likely to go up or down and they have to be correct about the change in pricing and also with the time frame it will take for all this to take place. Speculation also uses leverage.
Hedging could be thought of in the same way as you would look mat an insurance policy. Options are used to insure the investments against downturns much in the same way as you would insure your car or a house.
Erstwhile, ‘Bombay’, 100 years ago was beautifully built by the British where the charm of its imagery and landscape was known to baffle all. The look and feel of the city was exclusively reserved for those who lived in that era and those who used to breathe an unassuming air which culminated to form the quintessential ‘old world charisma’. World Luxury Council (India) is showcasing, ‘never seen before’Collectors’Edition of 100 year old archival prints on canvas through a Vintage Art Exhibit. The beauty of the archival prints is that they are created with special ink which lasts for 100 years, thus not allowing the colors to fade. The idea is to elicit an unexplored era through paradoxically beautiful images of today’s maximum city and present it to an audience who would have only envisioned Bombay 100 years ago, through the eyes of their forefathers. The splendid collection would be an absolute treat for people to witness and make part of their ‘vintage art’memorabilia.
This poem by Baudelaire is addressing communication between the metaphysical world and nature. It also scratches on the surface of symbolism between self and others. When you read it at first, it may seem confusing as a result of the conflicting presence of corruption and triumph.
Baudelaire discloses the connection between metaphysical world and nature with direct reference to the concept of Swedenborg. Emanuel Swedenborg was a Swedish scientist and a mystic. He is famous for his Neuron Concept as well as for his interpretation of dreams. He experienced several kinds of dreams and visions; some were pleasant and others disturbing. He recorded his experiences in Regnum Animale and his Journal of Dreams and when you read these works, like Baudelaire, you will immediately feel the battle between the love of self and the love of God.
Baudelaire, like Swedenborg, had a condition called Synaesthesia where the brain mingles the sensory perceptions. The colours, sounds and scents get all mixed up. They are bundled together to generate mental images. The senses are sometimes stimulated through the mind’s eyes. Baudelaire is transferring the French symbolism of art and nature on to the reader.
For example, in the lines such as
“corrupted, rich, triumphant, full; perfumes, colours, sound; Frankincense, musk, ambergris, Benjamin”, Baudelaire is using the rhetorical device of `asyndeton’ for pulling off the dramatic effect. It suggests the infinite list of sensory experiences that the reader can relate to. These ongoing lists are metaphorical and they connect the senses to oneself.
These lines also reflect parallelism where all worlds get related to the meaning of the poem as a whole and to the symbolism behind it. The sensory experience also gets connected to the metaphysical significance. Hypo-zeugma can be identified in technical literary terms in the line with “perfumes, colours, sounds”. They correspond with each other and these perceptions are developed throughout the entire poem with interrelated examples.
This is a poem about the unity of nature and human perceptions about multiple worlds. You can become aware of such unity at some rare moments in the poem. This happens when you lose the ordinary state of mind and when you no longer separate yourself from your surroundings.
Ecstasy is derived when you stand outside yourself in a trancelike state. This altered state of consciousness is not induced from within and not by any superfluous induced state through hallucinogenic drugs. Baudelaire was very fond of works by Thomas De Quincy and Edgar Allan Poe because of their dreamlike stories and poems. It is important for you to know that Baudelaire was also fond of hashish and marijuana. He achieved those hallucinogenic states for the sake of writing. He was also influenced by Emanuel Swedenborg’s mystical writings by emphasising on the oneness of the devotees to attain unity with God.
The antithesis is present in the poem with the contrast of `corrupted’ yet `triumphant’ senses and the `confused speech’ of the columns; it may be difficult to understand by few readers while others can crack the meanings behind the lines. Singing the `rapture of the soul’ relates to the sensory experience of humans. The `grove of symbols’ that is being walked through life is a metaphor for connection between all things external to oneself. Everything that man experiences and perceives is a gateway to the soul. The key is to observe everything and realise the connection between them. The `temple of nature’ and the `grove of symbols’ in which man walks is seen metaphorically to the relation of the body (temple which houses the soul) to what surrounds it.
The use of Literary technique `chiaroscuro’ is seen when the unity of the profound and shadowy echoes is used - as `vast as the night, as sunlight’s clarity’, comparing day and night to the merging of senses. Synaesthesia is being used throughout the poem with `long echoes’ and `living columns’ that breathe `confusing speech’ with `perfumes, colours and sounds’ corresponding with `odours’ that are `fresh as a baby’s skin’; with `green meadows’ and mellow oboes’ (oboes are a wind and reed instruments like shehnai).
To conclude, Baudelaire’s poem is a symbolic representation of the connection of self to its surroundings with the constant use of metaphors and esoteric language. It is an adequate reflection of rhetorical devices, poetic chiaroscuro and synaesthesia to take the reader through a journey into nature’s correspondences with human consciousness.