Saturday, December 2, 2017

Five Reasons you do not lose Fat when Dieting


Are you dieting and not losing fat? You are not aware of some common diet mistakes that you may be committing. Kathleen Zelman, Director of Nutrition for WebMD, says that you “may be eating a lot more calories than you think when you are on a diet”. You can check out the common diet mistakes everyone makes as per Adam Bornstein who contributes to `Shape.com’ by writing articles on weight loss strategies. 1. Not sticking to the basics – Exercises are created to relax you. Your workout has to be enjoyable. You are not going to get fit any faster if you are doing a ball balancing act on one leg. The basics will get you the same results. You will find them in the classic multi-muscle exercises such as squats and dead lifts. The fat on your butts and legs will definitely melt. While doing this, you cannot eat whenever you feel like. Do not be a victim of “eating amnesia” when you put your hand to mouth without knowing it. This happens mostly in front of a television in your living room when you snatch something from a packet or while reading a book. How can you kick this habit of mindless eating? You can get out of this habit by trying a cup of tea or a glass of water or simply chewing sugarless gum. 2. Performing more Cardio – Cardio may help you burn those calories and fat but it is not the answer or a primary solution. It is the weight training that is more likely to burn your fat. Cardio has to be secondary to weight training. Our hectic daily schedules have made us get into the unhealthy habit of eating fast. Tara Gidus, a Spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association, says, “We need to adopt more of the leisurely European-style eating so that we can savor our food”. 3. There is no intensity in your workout – People try to focus more on the social aspect in the gym than concentrate on the workout itself, particularly if they go to the gym with a cycle of friends. Workout has to be intense and short. The idea is to feel your muscles work while sweating it out. You must be skipping meals besides going to the gym. Breakfast skipping is a big mistake. Research has shown that breakfast eaters weigh less on an average than breakfast skippers. Two meals, at least per day, should be taken. 4. Taking in too many liquid calories – You may not know but liquid calories from sodas, teas, sweetened juices, coffee and smoothies add that extra fat on to you. Alcohol is also in this list. A study has found that more than twenty per cent of people get their extra calories from beverages. 5. Choosing unhealthy Add-ons – When you are on a diet, you try to increase the portions in the size of your snacks or meals for the simple reason that you feel you are doing regular exercise and also skipping meals. You also develop a habit of topping your topping your diet salads with high-fat add-ons like creamy dressings, croutons, bacon and cheese.

Escape with a relaxing Croatia Yacht Charter


Croatia has become a popular destination for people who want to sail. Visitors are attracted to its beaches and blue waters on account of its hot climate. People get to see and visit more than a hundred little peaceful islands in the neighboring Adriatic Sea. Yacht charter in Croatia is an ideal way to go about visiting these islands and the major cities along the coast. It is a marvelous experience to explore these places. Croatia yacht charters can give you an opportunity to explore the Adriatic Sea by selecting all sizes of sailing boats or luxury yachts. You get the option of choosing among large sized motor yachts, gullets and catamarans. The rentals of mega yachts are very popular for sailing in Croatia. Perfect Place for Sailing You can do sailing in Croatia if you love the sea and the sun. All water sports enthusiasts rent boats in Croatia to spend a perfect summer holiday. Apart from sailing, this place has many attractions. There are many interesting archaeological sites. Among them, there are eight national parks and six sites in the World Heritage category. There is plenty of night life on offer on the islands with some great diners and bars with live music. Dubrovnik in Croatia provides a Middle Age touch to the visitors. It is an impressive sight when you arrive into Dubrovnik by the sea route. It is a perfect place to stop for a yacht charter in Croatia. Another major Croatia yacht charter town is Split which is one of the largest Dalmatian towns on the Adriatic Coast. The number of gullets and sailing yachts that are available here make this a major port. Split is an important place for tourism. The town offers many attractions in the form of restaurants and shops. Pula is another place in Croatia where its coastal waters allow the visitors to do fishing, diving and snorkeling. Pula is also known for its ancient surviving Roman monuments, the First Century Amphitheatre being the most famous. This is among the six biggest Roman arenas that have survived in the world and has been named as the `Arena’ locally. Another important attraction at Pula is the Gate of Hercules that also dates back to the first century. Private Tours and Sailing Holidays in Croatia Croatia has a lot to offer to the tourist today with neighboring Slovenia and Lake Bled as extensions to the sailing holiday. The coastline is packed with glamorous islands and ancient ports with their sights of wilderness. You can get in touch with us to plan your sailing in Croatia as we offer many private tours to suit one and all. You can plan your yacht charter in Croatia from Opatija, Dubrovnik or Split. These charters can take you to the lovely islands on tours stretching up to eight days. Croatia yacht charter can take you on private tours to explore the beauty of the coastal areas. While on tour, you can visit the Krka and Plitvice National Parks. You can also visit the historical town of Zadar which is like a cultural capital of Croatia. Explore the Hidden Gems of Europe while on a Sailing Holiday in Croatia We can arrange the private tour for you to discover and explore some of the hidden and rare places of Europe while sailing in Croatia. You can start from the Port of Dubrovnik. It is an ancient walled city that has streets of cobbled stones, vintage boutiques and fine dining places. Dubrovnik is also well known for its wine and good seafood. You can also plan a yacht charter in Croatia at Split and Opatija. The Adriatic Sea is packed with many scenic islands. Croatia yacht charter is the biggest attraction for sailing enthusiasts. The pristine beaches and the beautiful waters are a pleasing sight for many a tourist. Luxury Yacht Specialists We can offer you the largest database of rentals for boats on the Adriatic Sea as Croatia yacht charter specialists. We offer a fleet of motor boats, sailing boats, catamarans, gullets and luxury yachts to make sailing in Croatia an easy and enjoyable experience for you. Simply browse through our site and pick out a yacht that suits you from our full service yacht charter in Croatia. Our team is always ready to offer the ideal luxury yacht charter to visitors. We also offer our full charter service to private individual or business clients. The charter could be for any special occasion or just for holidaying. We can take care of all car and mini-van transfers from the airports before you decide to escape with a relaxing Croatia yacht charter.

An Essay on the Punjabi Language


Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language that is spoken by people of the Punjab region in North Western India and in North Eastern Pakistan. Punjabi can be divided into two categories. The categories are Western Punjabi and Eastern Punjabi. Western Punjabi broke up into Saraiki, Potwari and Hindko. These came to be counted later almost as separate languages. Eastern Punjabi remained independently as what is Punjabi today. It is the official language of the state of Punjab in India. The term `Punjabi’ refers to the land which belongs to five waters. The word has its roots in Persian. It refers to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. For the community of Sikhs, Punjabi is their principal language. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most spoken language. There are more than one hundred and six million native speakers of the Punjabi language. This makes it the tenth most widely spoken language in the world. There are about seventy six million native Punjabi speakers in Pakistan and about thirty million Punjabi speakers in India. Punjabi is a descendant of the Saurasheni Prakrit which was spoken as the main language in medieval Northern India. After the partition of India, the Punjab region was divided between Pakistan and India. Though the Punjabi people made up the second biggest linguistic group in Pakistan after Bengali, Urdu was declared the national language of Pakistan. Punjabi did not get any official status. The Indian territory of Punjab which also included Haryana and Himachal Pradesh became a Hindi majority region. Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where the Punjabis have migrated in large numbers such as the United States of America, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. History Punjabi can be traced back as an independent language to the ninth century after Christ. The earliest traces of Punjabi can be found in the works of Nath Yogis, Gorakshanath and Charpatnath in the ninth century. Punjab faced the brunt of Moghul invaders during the middle ages. The internal conflicts within Punjab also proved harmful to the growth and development of the Punjabi language and its literary works. Guru Nanak, who lived between 1469 and 1539, was the founder of the Sikh religion and he gave a new impetus to the Punjabi language. The fifth Guru, Arjun Dev, 1563-1606, compiled the Sikh scripture, the `Adi Grantha’ or the `Grantha Saheb’ in Punjabi. During these middle ages, the Hindu and Sikh writers wrote in the Punjabi language. The best known Hindu Punjabi poet of the seventeenth century was Chandar Bhan who was originally from Lahore. The Muslim writers were also prolific in terms of creativity in Punjabi. A Muslim poet named Abdullah, 1616-1666, wrote `Bara Anva’(Twelve Topics) in Punjabi which is a thesis on Islam. During this period, many Muslim Sufi poets came into the limelight. Their compositions, which were purely in Punjabi, form an integral part of the Punjabi literature in both content and spirit. One of the famous Sufi poets was Ali Haider, 1689-1776, who wrote a large number of `Siharfis’ or poems involving thirty stanzas. Each stanza began, though, with a letter of the Persian alphabet. Poems on historical figures and stories formed a major literary part of the eighteenth century. After the British took over Punjab, Hindi language gained prominence in Punjab. The Hindus too with their reform movements like Arya Samaj and Sanatan Dharma gave importance to Hindi. Punjabi, in its Gurumukhi character, was taken up and used mainly by the Sikhs. Dialects Punjabi language has many dialects which are spoken in the sub regions of greater Punjab. Since the partition of Punjab in 1947, Punjabi that is spoken in both Pakistan and India has drifted apart from each other. The Indians rely heavily on Sanskrit vocabulary through Hindi. The Pakistanis rely mostly on Farsi and Urdu influence with the Shahmukhi script. The Majhi dialect is Punjab’s prime dialect. It is considered as textbook Punjabi and is spoken in the historical region of Majha. It has had its influence on both Amritsar and Lahore. Modern Punjabi consists of many dialects. The Majhi or the standard Punjabi is the written standard in both parts of Punjab. The Punjabi language in India has replaced several Persian and Arabic loan words acquired through Urdu with words of Sanskrit origin because of the domination of Hindi instead of Urdu in India. Recent modernisation and industrialisation has seen an English influence in both parts of Punjab. Major Punjabi dialects are Majhi, Shahpuri, Malwi, Doabi, Pwadhi, Dogri and Multani. The Multani dialect of Punjabi is spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Riasati and Thalochri are sub dialects of Multani. It is spoken by a majority of people in the northern parts of Sindh, Hyderabad and Karachi. Dogri is spoken by about four million people in the Jammu region of India. Pwadhi is spoken in Powadh and in some regions of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Sutlej and the Ghaggar rivers. Doabi is spoken in Indian Punjab in Jalandhar, Nawanshahr and Hoshiarpur between the Beas and the Sutlej rivers. Doabi means in Persian the land between two rivers. Malwi is spoken in the eastern part of Indian Punjab. Main areas are Ludhiana, Barnala and Faridkot. Shahpuri dialect is mainly spoken in Pakistani Punjab. It is named after the town of Shahpur. Majhi or the prime dialect is spoken in central Punjab spanning Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Amritsar and Gurdaspur. A few portions of the Guru Granth Saheb use the Punjabi dialects but the book is also interspersed with several languages including Brijbhasha, Khariboli and Sanskrit. Guru Gobind Singh, the last Guru of the Sikhs, composed `Chandi di Var’ in Punjabi. Some of his works were written in languages like Brijbhasha and Farsi. Punjabi is extra ordinary among the modern Indo-European languages because it is a tonal language. Script In the twentieth century, the Punjabi speaking Sikhs started giving importance to the Punjabi written in the Gurumukhi script as an emblem of their distinct identity. Punjabi identity was affected by the communal sentiments in the twentieth century. Pakistani Punjabis use the older Shahmukhi script which is a modified version of the Persian Nastaliqi script. Gurumukhi and Shahmukhi are the two official scripts of the Punjabi language. Gurumukhi script was derived from Brahmi which was used for Ashoka’s edicts and was known for its vowel signs. Literature The Punjabi literary origin started with Baba Farid or Fariduddin Ganjshakar in the early thirteenth century. The literary tradition continued with many ancient Sufi Muslim writers and with Guru Nanak Dev, the first Guru of Sikhism. The early Punjabi literature was essentially spiritual in nature and has had a strong oral tradition. The poetry written by Sufi saints has formed the folklore of Punjab and has still remained popular where people sing with great affection in all parts of Punjab. Muslim Sufi writers composed many works in Punjabi between 1600 and 1850. The most well known Punjabi Sufi poet was Baba Bulleh Shah (1680-1757). He wrote in the Kafi style. He practiced the Sufi tradition of Punjabi poetry that was established by poets like Shah Hussain (1540-1600), Sultan Bahu (1630-1690) and Shah Sharaf (1640-1725). He was also a contemporary of the legendary poet Waris Shah (1722-1798) who wrote Heer Ranjha. This is one of the most popular medieval Punjabi works. Other popular tragic love stories are Sohni Mahiwal, Mirza Sahiba and Sassi Punnun. Shah Mohammad’s `Jangnama’ is a fine piece of poetry that describes an account of the First Anglo Sikh war that occurred after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The great linguist, George Abraham Grierson, used the word Punjabi and its dialects in his multi volume, `Linguistic Survey of India’ which he wrote between 1904 and 1928. A major figure in the revival movement of the Punjabi literary tradition, Bhai Vir Singh, started insisting that the Punjabi language was the exclusive prerogative of the Sikhs. Grammar Punjabi has three typical tones that developed from the lost voiced aspirate series of consonants. Phonetically, the tones are rising or rising-falling contours and they can spread over more than one syllable. The grammar of the Punjabi language is the study of the word order, case marking and other morphological structures. Punjabi language has homonyms. They are words that have the same spelling and pronunciation but with different meanings and usually different parts of speech. Punjabi nouns have an assigned gender and they can be either masculine or feminine though some nouns can be used for both the genders due to dialectical variations. The gender value is purely grammatical for inanimate objects. The assignment of gender to inanimate objects is arbitrary. The nouns also can be singular or plural. There are two cases – direct and oblique and this applies to almost all the nouns. A typical Punjabi noun can have on an average five to six different forms depending on the values of number and case. In Punjabi, there are six types of pronouns. They are personal, reflexive, demonstrative, indefinite, relative and interrogative. Punjabi adjectives can be classified into two categories – inflected and uninflected depending upon whether they change forms for number or case or not. Punjabi verbs change forms for gender, number, person, tense and phase. Like nouns, the verbs have two genders – masculine and feminine and two number forms that are singular and plural. The verbs also take forms for three person cases – first, second and third person categories. The verbs can be in perfect or non perfect forms. The verbs take form for future tense only and an auxiliary verb form is used for the present and the past tense. Postpositions are similar to the prepositions in English. They link the noun and the pronoun to other parts of the sentence. There are various particles that are used in the Punjabi sentences for emphasis and negation. There are four main types of particles – emphatic, negative, honorific and vocative. Punjabi phrases can be classified broadly into two types – nominal phrases and verb phrases. There are at least three ways in which emphasis can be represented in written Punjabi sentences. They are iteration of words, using emphatic particles or changing the phrase order. Punjabi in Modern Culture Punjabi language is now getting accepted among the Punjabis for wider use in modern media and communications network. This language has always remained as an integral part of the Indian film scene, particularly in Bollywood. There has been a trend of Bollywood songs written totally in Punjabi. The pop and folk songs in Punjabi have become very popular both in India and Pakistan at the national level. Many television dramas based on characters from Punjab are telecast every day by various channels. The numbers of students who are opting for Punjabi literature has increased in Punjab. Punjabi cinema in India has also seen a big revival and many Punjabi films are being made nowadays.

Airlines can now fly through Volcanic Ash Clouds


A new tool will now allow air planes to fly through volcanic ash clouds and tackle unnecessary disruptions. There is a group of scientists working at the Norwegian Institute of Air Research and they have informed that their latest tool will help to keep the flight paths open. It is called Airborne Volcanic Object Imaging Detector (AVOID). This tool was earlier tested and introduced in Sicily with a test flight over Mount Etna. It is an active volcano that looms over the Mediterranean island. This technology has been designed by a British scientist by the name of Dr. Fred Prata. The system uses heat detecting cameras and combines them with satellite data and atmospheric modelling to inform the pilots where an ash cloud is located and where it could be heading. This jet testing technology can make it feasible for pilots to identify an ash cloud ahead at altitudes of almost anywhere between 5000 and 50000 feet. AVOID uses two fast sampling thermal infra red cameras that make images and identify anything that is in front of the aeroplanes. The two cameras have been tuned to identify silicates which are the components that make up the volcanic ash. The cameras would be able to identify the silicates up to a hundred kilometres or maybe more even at a mean height of around thirty thousand feet and that information can be relayed straight back to the pilots in the cockpit and they will be able to see the volcanic ash in the atmosphere ahead of the aeroplane and manoeuvre around the cloud or patches of clouds.

Wednesday, November 29, 2017

Holistic Dieting and Top Ten Considerations about it


A holistic diet goes beyond what you eat. It transcends beyond the food on your table or the burning of calories through exercising. It concerns you as a total person and gives you a healthy lifestyle in a package. Its main aim is to nourish your body, arrest chronic health concerns and increase your levels of energy to create an overall sense of well being. World Health Organization has explained health to be “more than the absence of disease; Health is a state of optimal well being”. Amanda Landis, a practicing nutritionist and Principal of Pure Balance Plan LLC has talked about the important considerations of a holistic diet while writing for `Livestrong.com’ and spelt out the ten most important considerations about a holistic diet to understand its objectives. 1. Developing a healthy and balanced diet – One of the basic principles of a holistic diet is the need to balance the macronutrients like carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Neda Smith, the Co-Editor of Holistic Nutrition, talks about the foods that give us nourishment. She talks about how not all carbohydrates are bad and they need not be eliminated from your diet. 2. Maintaining an adequate diet – It is important to eat natural food in a holistic diet and to avoid processed foods. Natural foods include fish, whole grains, vegetables, meats, fresh juices, herbal teas and coffee substitutes. 3. Balancing your diet – You have to balance the macronutrients in your diet with the micronutrients like fiber, minerals and vitamins to help the body in optimizing energy so that it reaches high levels of physical and emotional health. 4. Eating moderately – It is better to eat moderately foods that have high sugar and fat content. 5. Digesting your food properly – It is important for you to digest your food to maintain good health. Cold beverages and cold foods do not help the cause as they are slow to digest. Also, you have to chew the food well before you swallow it. It may come as a surprise to you but foods that contain probiotics or friendly bacteria are strongly recommended as they contribute to your good digestion and your intestinal health. 6. Laying the foundation for good emotional health – Sandra Caton, Editor for the American Holistic Health Association, talks about how you can be consciously aware of your thoughts, behavior and feelings towards your family, friends and the people you interact with. 7. Building up respect for your environment – You can participate in the community and neighborhood projects of cleaning up and respecting the `Go Green’ philosophy. 8. Gathering information to make well informed wellness oriented choices – Making the right kind of food choices can help you to avoid health problems in the future such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cancer. 9. Participating actively in your health decisions and your healing process – This can be done through disciplining yourself to maintain a nutritional diet and following a regular exercise regime. 10. Integrating nourishment for your mental and spiritual health – This can be done through various modes of attaining mental peace and it can come through Yoga, simple meditation and recreation like reading or listening to music. Do you wake up with enough enthusiasm for the day that is ahead?

The Advantages of taking Copper Supplements


Copper is a mineral that our body needs. It plays a major role in fighting iron deficiency that leads to anaemia. Iron cannot be absorbed from the intestinal tract without the circulation of small amounts of copper in the body. People are not aware of the full health benefits of copper supplements and they do not take enough of this important nutrient. Copper supplements can give you benefit in several ways. The most important function of this mineral is in the production of energy and in the formation of haemoglobin. Throughout history, people involved in the business of healing have understood the importance of copper in staying healthy. Copper supplements have been used in the past for the treatment of diseases. Copper has been advised for medicinal purposes as far back as ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. It was being used as an application to the body even by the ancient Aztec Civilization. Ancient Egyptian medical texts mention the use of copper as an agent of sterilization for drinking water and treating wounds. It has also been used for headaches, palsy and burns. Hippocrates, who is regarded as the father of modern medicine, has mentioned in his doctrines that copper is to be used as treatment for leg ulcers which are associated with varicose veins. Copper supplements make it easy for the body to use iron. Researchers have identified that copper makes a difference in the treatment of osteoporosis, high blood pressure and cancer. Studies have associated copper deficiencies with heart ailments by means of bad cholesterol levels, leading to hypertension. Other signs of copper deficiency include anaemia, baldness and skin sores. It is to be remembered that copper can be toxic if you take it in excess. Excessive copper intake can give side effects like nausea, vomiting and joint pains. The National Academy of Sciences has set a maximum allowance level of three milligrams per day for adults and two and a half milligrams per day for children. Most of the multi vitamins include copper as a supplement. Oral copper supplements can be found in gels and solutions. Copper supplements are an important part of a nutritional program for the healing of wounds. Many medical researchers believe that infusion of copper into wound dressings will help in healing faster and the regeneration of skin cells. Copper supplementation has also been found crucial in the treatment of arthritis. It has been established that copper supplements are important to the health of our nerves as these supplements are required to build and maintain myelin which is like an insulation that protects and covers our nerve cells. Our body requires copper supplements to help an enzyme which is essential for the production of the connective tissue proteins such as collagen and elastin. Copper works with Vitamin C and zinc to form elastin. Copper supplements are also needed for the development and maintenance of our bones and skin including our blood vessels and joints. Copper is also instrumental in the healing process related with melanin which is the pigment connected with our hair color and skin.

Oriya


Oriya is an official language of the state of Orissa in India. It is spoken by over thirty five million people all over the world. It is a member of the Indo-Aryan language family and its history can be traced from the days of the Kalingas. Oriya is derived from Magadhi Prakrit and Pali that was spoken across cultures from eastern regions of India over a thousand and five hundred years ago. Though Oriya has a strong resemblance to Bangla and Ahomiya from Assam, it is not influenced by Arabic and Persian despite Orissa’s long rule by the Moghals. Oriya is regarded to be the modified form of Odri Prakrit which is derived from the Bibhashas. Modern Oriya vocabulary is made up of Sanskrit, Hindustani and traces of Adivasi origin. Outside Orissa, there are people speaking Oriya in other regions like the Midnapore district of West Bengal, the Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, the Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Vishakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh and the eastern districts of the Chattisgarh state. History The history of Oriya has been categorised into five main stages – Old Oriya, Early Middle Oriya, Middle Oriya, Late Middle Oriya and Modern Oriya. Old Oriya – The period between the tenth and the fourteenth centuries – The origin of literature can be traced to `Bauddha Gano O Doha’ written by the Buddhist Siddhas of Orissa. The earliest traces can be found on the inscriptions in temples and copper plates. Early Middle Oriya – The period between the fourteenth and the sixteenth centuries – Earliest use of prose can be found in `Madala Panji’ or the `Palm Leaf’ Chronicles of the Jagnnatha Temple at Puri which dates back to the fourteenth century. Middle Oriya – The period between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries – Five poets emerged as the `Panchashakha’. They were Balaram Das, Jagannath Das, Achyutamanda Das, Ananta Das and Josobanta Das. Late Middle Oriya – The period between the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries – A new form of novels in verse form came about in the beginning of the eighteenth century when Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote `Haravali’. Modern Oriya – The period from the nineteenth century till the present day – In the modern period, the first Oriya printing typeset was cast in 1836 by the Christian missionaries who made a great contribution to the language. Though the handwritten Oriya script resembled Bengali and Assamese scripts, the printed typeset adoption leant more towards Tamil and Telugu scripts. Amos Sutton wrote the Bible in Oriya in 1840, compiled an Oriya dictionary in 1841 and wrote `An Introductory Grammar of Oriya’ in 1844. The possible origin of the Oriya language can be found in the script with which the edicts of Ashoka were written about two thousand and two hundred years ago at Dhauli and Jaugada and the inscriptions of Kharavela in Hati Gumpha of Khandagiri. The Hati Gumpha inscriptions that are written in Pali language were perhaps the only evidence of stone engravings. This may be the reason why the German linguist and Professor Hermann Oldenberg mentioned that Pali was the original language of Orissa. Literature Oriya literature has had a varied history through the ages and was comprised mainly of poems and prose depicting religion with the stories of gods and goddesses as main themes until the early sixteenth century. The first great poet in the history of Oriya literature is Sarala Das who is also referred to as the Vyasa of Orissa. His best known works are the `Chandi Purana’ and the `Vilanka Ramayana’ written in praise of the Goddess Durga. Arjuna Dasa’s `Rama Bibha’ is considered as the first epic poem in the history of Oriya literature. In the fifteenth century, the writings of Shri Chaitanya evolved a new form in the Sanskrit style with religious themes. The Panchashakha or the great five poets were the main exponents of religious works in Oriya. Other prominent works are the `Ushabhilasha’ by Sisu Sankara Dasa and `Rukmini Bibha’ by Kartikka Dasa. A new form of verse based novel writing developed during the early seventeenth century after Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote `Haravali’. Poets like Madhusudhana and Sisu Isvara Dasa used simple Oriya to write epic poems based on themes from the Puranas called `Kavyas’. Oriya literature was influenced by the use of verbal wordplay around the turn of the eighteenth century. Upendra Bhanja was a good exponent of verbal wordplay in this period. The tradition was kept alive till the middle of the nineteenth century by poets like Arakshita Dasa and Bhima Bhoi. Another prominent use was that of family chronicles in prose relating to religious festivals and rituals. Major changes came about in the modern period of Oriya literature, mainly in its style. Great poets and writers of the modern era were Rai Bahadur Radhanatha Ray and Fakira Mohana Senapati who is recognised as the father of modern Oriya literature. Their writings introduced a new spirit into Oriya literature and gave it a modern outlook. Modern drama got a good boost with the writing of `Kanchi-Kaveri’ in 1880 by the great playwright Rama Sankara Ray. This spirit was carried further on by modern writers like Nanda Kishore Bal and Gopabandhu Dasa. The novel form in Oriya literature became strong with the works of many great Oriya writers like Umesha Sarakara and Kalindi Charana Panigrahi. Modern style of poetry began with the poet Sachi Kanta Rauta Ray. Other modern poets are Godavarisa Mahapatra and Kunjabihari Dasa. Some writers also made significant contributions by the translation of several classics from Western literature. Prabhasa Chandra Dwivedi was the main facilitator in this process of the reorientation through adaptations. Oriya literature developed further with critiques, essays and treatises. Notable essayists were Girija Shankar Ray and Hare Krushna Mahatab. Dialects Midnapori Oriya is spoken in the Midnapore district of West Bengal. Singhbhumi Oriya is spoken in the East Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. Baleswari Oriya is spoken in the Baleswar district of Orissa. Ganjami Oriya is spoken in the Ganjam district of Orissa and the Srikakulam District of Andhra Pradesh. Desiya Oriya is spoken in the Rayagada district of Orissa and in the hilly regions of the Vizianagaram and Vishakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh. Sambalpuri Oriya is spoken in the Bargarh district of Orissa and by some people in the Raigarh district of Chattisgarh state. Bhatri Oriya is spoken in the south western Orissa and south eastern Chattisgarh. Grammar and Script The modern Oriya script is a development of the Kalinga script. This script actually descended from the Brahmi script. The earliest inscription in the Kalinga script dates from the eleventh century. A notable feature of the Oriya script is the curved calligraphy of the alphabets of those times. This kind of appearance is a result of the age long tradition of writing manuscripts on palm leaves. These leaves have a tendency to tear if too many straight lines are marked on the surface. The writing was done with an iron stylus. Oriya has syllabic alphabets where all the consonants have a distinct vowel embedded within. Diacritics appear above, below, before or after the consonant they belong to. Diacritics change the form of the vowel. When the diacritics appear at the beginning of a syllable, vowels are written as independent letters. When some consonants come about together, special conjunct symbols are used in combination with the essential parts of each letter. Oriya has twenty eight consonant phonemes and six vowel phonemes. Unlike Hindi, Oriya keeps most of the cases of Sanskrit. The nominative and the vocative verbs merge with the accusative and dative. The genders are masculine, feminine and neuter. The grammatical numbers are both singular and plural. The tense covers present, past and future. The Unicode range for Oriya is U+0B00-U+B7F. The Oriya script which is also known as Utkala Lipi can be used for several other Indian languages like Sanskrit and Hindi. Oriya and the Spread of Journalism The first Oriya newspaper to be printed was the weekly `Utkal Dipika’ by Gouri Shankar Ray in 1865. This weekly was a result of the surge in nationalism during the late nineteenth century. This paper played an important role in the socio-political life of Orissa. In the early part of the twentieth century, the Swadeshi movement had gained some momentum and it had a considerable impact on Orissa’s social life. This period was also marked by the spread of journalism in different parts of Orissa. The first Oriya daily newspaper `Dainik Asha’ was published from Berhampur in 1928 by Sashibhushan Rath. This was a turning point in the history of Oriya journalism. It set an example of the power of the press in uniting Oriya people for a cause. In this particular case, it was first the unification of the bordering and outlying Oriya areas under one administration and secondly, it was a great help to the freedom movement. Oriya is a relatively young language in comparison to some other Indian languages. Efforts are being made currently to go ahead with the digitisation of the Oriya language and such attempts will make sure that this unique language will continue to retain its distinct place in the culture and history of modern India.