Monday, December 7, 2009

Carl Nielsen - The Four Temperaments

Nielsen titled his second symphony 'Four Temperaments' (Choleric, Phlegmatic, Melancholic and Sanguine)inspired by a painting he saw at an inn depicting the four temperaments. He completed this symphony in 1902. His opus 16. These temperaments are primarily connected with people and their general condition. They reflect on divergent personalities of the players for whom he wrote it. However, the symphony should not be considered programmatic. This symphony is polytonal. It is dedicated to Feruccio Busoni. Michael Schonwandt delivers a capable reading with the Danish National Symphony Orchestra.

Thursday, November 12, 2009

Carl Nielsen - First Symphony in G Minor

Carl August Nielsen was a Danish violinist, conductor and composer. Born on 9th June 1865 and died on 3rd October 1931. His works are very well known in Denmark. Today, I heard his first symphony for the first time and it was impressive. He is admired for his symphonies. He also wrote concerti for violin, flute and clarinet. He appears on the Danish hundred-kroner note.
Nielsen first discovered music while experimenting with the sound and pitch he heard while striking logs in a pile of firewood behind his home. The songs his mother sang and the music at the wedding parties also influenced him. His father played the violin at such wedding parties.
His first symphony is in G Minor. It shows his individuality and progressive tonality. The first movement theme for the second violins, oboe and flute permeates throughout all the movements. He begins the work in one key and ends in another.
The performance I heard was by the Danish National Symphony Orchestra and energetically interpreted by Michael Schonwandt. Beautiful symphony with a haunting first movement theme.

Thursday, November 5, 2009

Shadow of a Doubt

Alfred Hitchcock considered this 1942 thriller to be his personal favourite among his films though I will rate 'Psycho' as his ultimate. Good script by Thornton Wilder. It was inspired by an actual case of a 1920s serial killer known as the 'Merry Widow Murderer'. Nobody narrates a tale like Hitchcock. This film will keep you glued to your seats. Superb acting by Joseph Cotten. Teresa Wright is good as Young Charlie. Good music by Dmitri Tiomkin with Franz Lehar's 'Die Lustige Witwe' (The Merry Widow) waltz as the centrepiece of the music score. This is a great film for all Hitchcock and classic mystery lovers.

Tuesday, November 3, 2009

Bruckner Second

I got this as a classic bargain at Landmark for just Rs.150.00 and it is every bit value for money. It is a collector's dream come true bargain! I have only heard one other version before I picked this up few days back and that was Berliner under Herbert Von Karajan. This performance by the Suddeutscher Philharmonische under Hans Zanotelli goes one notch above Karajan. It is dreamy and well spaced out. The opening bars and the introduction of the beautiful theme is handled very sensitively by Zanotelli. The acoustics are nowhere near the Berliner recording but this performance has an ethereal quality and beats Karajan. The Adagio is beautiful and particularly the closing horn passages are very well interpreted. The Landler is electric and so is the finale. A great performance. This remains the definitive Bruckner Second.

Friday, October 30, 2009

Rene Goscinny _ A Genius behind Asterix and Iznogoud

We have all known about Asterix's adventures through the mind of Rene Goscinny. But few days back, I was introduced to his other masterpiece work by my wife, 'The Iznogoud' series with brilliant drawings by Jean Tabary. He created these series in 1962 and believe me, even today they seem as fresh as the desert sand they represent. Iznogoud is the "Is No Good" Vazir of Haroun Al Plassid somewhere in the bowels of Baghdad. His dream is "How to become the Caliph instead of the Caliph" and each adventure is as wicked and seam bursting as the other. It is a laugh riot with superb drawings and I am thoroughly enjoying each work of Goscinny on these series as I have done with the Asterix.
A section of the Muslim Community seems to get offended by the sharp cynicism of Goscinny in making fun of the Caliph and the Commander of the Faithful but these critics don't know their arse from their elbow and do not know how to accept reality and laugh at themselves. The British and the Dutch and the French have shown us the way in how to laugh at yourself and create a masterpiece in writing and art.

Friday, October 16, 2009

Bruckner's Romantische

This is the definitive Bruckner Fourth. It has taken me 53 years to discover this.Those who have ears to hear will be convinced by Celibidache that this is the greatest performance of this symphony. There have been many fine recordings of this score particularly by Zubin Mehta, Otto Klemperer and Jesus Lopez Cobos but this will change your life. What tempi and what space! You owe it to yourself to acquaint yourself with this remarkable performance.

Thursday, September 3, 2009

John Constable

John Constable. 1776-1837. He is perhaps the greatest and most original of all British landscape artists. He is renowned especially for his views of the Stour Valley in Suffolk, Salisbury Cathedral, Hampstead Heath and the Stonehenge. He was brought up in the country. Today, his genius is acknowledged throughout the world but during his own lifetime, landscape painting was unfashionable and he was forced to struggle for recognition.
When he chose art as a profession, he left his Suffolk home to live permanently in London. He was born in East Bergholt in Suffolk on 11th June 1776. Most of his boyhood was spent around the Stour valley. His father, Golding Constable, was a wealthy corn merchant with two water mills and some ninety acres of farmland.
England's two greatest artists, Constable and Turner were students together as well as rivals at the Royal Academy.
One of the most important decisions an artist makes is where to stand when painting or sketching. The choice of viewpoint has a profound effect on the impact of the finished painting. Constable often stood high above the scenes he painted. The effect of the high position was to give an overview in which distant objects were clearly seen. When he adopted a lower viewpoint as with his 'Hay Wain',the distant objects were no longer clear but merged into the background. The effect is to involve us with the foreground scene and focus our attention on the main subject. A long viewpoint, like the 'Salisbury Cathedral' can also highlight the drama of the subject. It allows the soaring spire of the cathedral to be framed within an archway formed by the trees. In 'Stonehenge', the low viewpoint combined with a bare horizon means that much of the painting is taken up with the dark blue sky that is a background of mystery for the ancient stones.
His masterpiece is the 'Hay Wain'. He painted this in his London Studio during the winter of 1821 using his diary sketches and oil studies as reference material. He chose a landscape he knew well.He was anxious that the details should be accurate. His true subject is the day itself as he carefully studies the shifting summer clouds and the play of sunlight on the trees and meadows. Constable observed the sky with unusual care and made detailed oil studies often noting the exact time of day and the wind speed and direction.
One critic at the Paris Salon in 1824, on seeing his work, 'The Haymakers', remarked, "Look at these English pictures - the very dew is on the ground".
'Boatbuilding' done in 1815 is in Victoria and Albert Museum. The 'Hay Wain' is in the National Gallery."Salisbury Cathedral' in 1823, was commissioned by the Bishop of Salisbury himself.
While Constable was sketching in the depths of Suffolk, dramatic news was breaking in the outside world. The King of England had gone mad and power went to his fashionable son, the Prince Regent, Prince George. The Prime Minister, John Bellingham, was shot in parliament. The long war against Napoleon continued with disastrous consequences for the British economy. 1812 was a year of three-day weeks, riots and depression. Also, in this year, Edward Jenner pioneered the vaccination against small pox. This year was also the beginning of the end for Napoleon. General Kutuzov troubled him in Moscow and the severe winter blitz destroyed almost ninety percent of his army. A sequence of victories against the French armies in Spain brought Wellington to Madrid in the summer of 1812. Within another year, he would enter France itself and be the nemesis for Napoleon at Waterloo. Then in this year, there was war between Britain and the United States that was provoked by the British naval blockade of French ports. All these events did affect John Constable but he sought refuge in his art while the world he had once loved was literally going up in flames.He died at age 61 suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis.


Chaplin's masterpiece talkie of 1952. In Black & White. What can I Say? I saw it for the first time today. Uptil now, I had always held 'The Great Dictator' as Chaplin's greatest. This film now takes that spot. It is Chaplin reflecting on his years as an entertainer. He stars as Calvero, a fading clown.He helps a paralyzed ballerina regain the use of her legs and achieve fame but at a great cost to himself.This film is famous for the teaming of Chaplin and Buster Keaton. Leading Lady, Claire Bloom, called it a fairy godfather story. It is frankly autobiographical like City Lights. It is also a sentimental love story. The final scene is heart wrenching as Terry is able to help Calvero enjoy one last triumphant moment with her success as a prima ballerina when he suddenly suffers a fatal heart attack. As his life is coming to an end, hers is rising in a lovely solo ballet that ends the film with the haunting beautiful melody written by Chaplin himself.
The music by Chaplin is magnificent. The main theme as well as the recollection elegy themes are beautiful. The flashback technique when he is going to sleep in the night reminiscing about his days of comedy and being in limelight as well as his fading success are so well captured. The high shots while the stage is being changed and the ballet shots are extremely innovative. I will have to give this film the best musical tag after Sound of Music and My Fair Lady and before Oliver and Wizard of Oz.
There may be an argument against this film as being silly, self-serving megalomania but I adore it. The dialogue delivery of Chaplin is excellent. It is indeed great to see him speak and speak so well and clear. There is one dialogue at the end with Claire Bloom when she wants him to marry her and settle down in the country when he replies that she is wasting her love on him and that his life is the theatre. When she reminds him that he hates theatre, he says " Yes, I hate theatre; I hate the sight of blood too, but it flows in my veins." This delivery hit me and the panache with which he says it is electric.
The film reveals many basic truths about humanity. Limelight is pure pathos with a little comedy. Chaplin will definitely make you cry in this film as he always does in many of his other films but I have seen his new best work and that is this.

Saturday, August 15, 2009

Mahler's Death Symphony

I was listening to Mahler's Ninth yesterday ; Kirill Kondrashin and Moscow Philharmonic. Good account on a Melodiya pressing.
I want to share my Mahler symphonic titles with you all:
No.1 - Titan; No.2 - Resurrection; No.3 - Purgatorio; No. 4 - Angelic; No.5 - Fate; No. 6- Tragic; No.7- Nachtmusik; No.8 - Magnificent Symphony of a Thousand; Das Lied Von Der Erde; No.9 - Death; No.10- Farewell.
Gustav Mahler wrote his ninth symphony in 1908 but kept revising it till 1910. This symphony is a renunciation of life. Mahler was suffering from an incurable heart disease and was aware of the fact. He still continued with great inspiration to work on the symphony and that involved a lot of self sacrifice as he did earlier all his life.
He started work on the Ninth soon after completing Das Lied Von Der Erde - a symphony for singer soloists and orchestra that has a chronological place between the Eighth and the Ninth. Mahler did not want to designate Das Lied von der Erde as 'No. 9' frequently thinking about the fateful significance of the title of the 'Ninth' Symphony' which proved to be the last for Beethoven, Schubert and Bruckner despite left over scores to move on. Dvorak also ended at nine but this is another story for in his lifetime he had only published five symphonies starting with No. 6 as No.1 and No.5 as No.2.For this reason, Das Lied von der Erde that was essentially Mahler's Ninth acquired a programmatic title and the one that subsequently followed it, while virtually being the tenth, was designated as the Ninth.
His tenth symhony notwithstanding, with finishing touches by Derryck Cooke , Mazzetti and Samale/Mazzucca, Mahler's Ninth became his symphonic swan song. I call it the 'Death' Symphony. He never saw it performed. The symphony was introduced after Mahler's death in 1912 with Bruno Walter conducting the Wiener Philharmoniker.

Tuesday, July 28, 2009

Beethoven's Fate

Work had already begun on the C Minor Fifth by April 1804. It was completed by the beginning of 1808. The first performance took place in the Theater An Der Wien on 22nd December 1808.
This symphony is one of the most popular and well known compositions in all of European classical music. This is one of the most frequently played symphonies of all. It is in four movements: an opening sonata allegro con brio followed by an andante, a scherzo with trio and attaca to the finale.
This symphony has become popular due to the terse nature of the themes and because of the artistic unity of the work; also due to the fact to a large degree of Anton Schindler's oft-quoted story much after Beethoven's death that Beethoven described the opening of the first movement as "Thus Fate knocks at the door!". Ever since, this symphony has been supposed to portray the struggle with fate on both personal and universal terms.
While composing this symphony, Beethoven continuously interrupted this work to prepare others like Fidelio, Appassionata sonata, the Razumovsky string quartets, the violin concerto and the Fourth Piano Concerto.
Beethoven was in his mid thirties during this time and his personal life was troubled by increasing deafness. Even the world was troubled by the Napoleonic wars, political turmoil in Austria and the occupation of Vienna by Napoleon's troops in 1805.
The Fifth Symphony is scored for 23 first violins, 14 second violins, 6 violas, 6 cellos, 4 double basses, piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets (B flat and C major), 2 bassoons, contrabassoon, 2 french horns (in E flat and C major), 2 trumpets, 3 trombones (alto, tenor and bass) and two pairs of timpani (tuned in G and C). A performance dictated by the tempi markings should last a minimum of thirty three minutes if the repeats are ignored in the first and last movements.
The Allegro Con Brio is ferocious. It begins by a distinctive four-note motif twice, allegorical to "fate knocking at the door". Hence I too call this symphony , "FATE". This motif appears frequently in popular culture too from disco to rock and roll; to appearance in films and TV. During the second world war, BBC used the four-note motif to inroduce its radio news broadcasts because the rhythm it denotes is the morse code letter 'V'.
Some conductors take this motif 'molto ritardando' with the fermata over the fourth note justifying this. Following the first bars, Beethoven uses imitations to expand the fate theme; these imitations forming a single, flowing melody. A very short fortissimo bridge is played by the french horns that takes place before a second theme is introduced. This second theme is in E Flat Major, the relative major to the home key and is lyrical. the codetta is again based on the four-note motif. The development section follows using modulation sequences and imitation including the short fortissimo bridge. During the recapitulation, there is a brief solo beautiful passage for the oboe in improvisatory style and the movement ends in a massive coda.
The Andante is delicate. It is in A Flat Major. It is lyrical in double variation form. Two themes are presented and varied in alternation. After these variations, there is a long coda. The first theme is a melody in unison by the violas and cellos with accompaniment by the double basses. The second theme is harmonic with support by clarinets, bassoons, first and second violins with a triplet arpeggio in the violas and double bass. This is followed up by a third theme with thirty-second notes in the violas and cellos with a counterphrase running in the flute, oboe and bassoon. Then, there is an interlude where the whole orchestra joins in a fortissimo leading to a series of crescendoes and a coda to close the movement.
When the scherzo arrives, we understand that the unity extends through the entire work. The second subject of the scherzo again beats out the hammering opening rhythm of the symphony in its first bars, this time on a single note. Such inner unity which enables a work of art to live must spring ultimately from the creative mind with a constant interplay between intuition and hard grinding work. This movement is in ternary form consisting of a scherzo and trio. It follows the traditional mould of classic symphonic third movements but breaks out of the minuet-trio hemisphere. Even with Beethoven's early works, the scherzo is followed by a contrasting trio section, a return of the scherzo and a coda. But this is so different that it towers over all scherzo-trios written before, with especially the strings pizzicato touch, an effect that was brilliantly mirrored again by Tchaikovsky in his F Minor Fourth. The usual classical symphonies as I told earlier employed the minuet and trio as the third movement; but Beethoven chose to use a new scherzo and trio form. The movement returns to the opening key of C Minor played by the cellos and double basses. It is reminiscent of the opening theme of the final movement of Mozart's G Minor Fortieth, though in a different key and range. This was discovered by Gustav Nottebohm when he examined Beethoven's sketchbook of the Fifth where 29 measures of Mozart's finale appear copied out by Beethoven at the side. Th opening theme is answered by a theme played by the clarinets, oboes and bassoons. The french horns loudly announce the main theme. The trio section is in C Major and is written contrapuntally. When the scherzo returns for the final time, it is performed by the strings pizzicato and marked 'piano'. The scherzo then contrasts this figure with the famous motif (3+1) from the first movement which takes command of the whole movement in transition... accelerando... attacca... to the Allegro
which begins triumphantly and exhilaratingly without interruption. This movement is in C Major and is significantly interspersed by a return to the hammering motif of the scherzo. The orchestra is here enriched with a piccolo, contrabassoon and three trombones. This is the transition from darkness to light. It is an unusual variant of sonata; at the end of the development section, the music halts on a dominant cadence played fortissimo. Then the music continues after a pause with a quiet reprise of the horn theme of the scherzo movement. The recapitulation is then introduced by a crescendo coming out of the last bars of the interpolated scherzo section just as the same music was introduced at the opening of the movement. Haydn, in his own style, had done this in his Forty Sixth Symphony in B Major. Maybe, Beethoven had kept that at the back of his mind. Peer influence does speak somewhere. Haydn had tutored Beethoven for a short while. This finale includes a long coda in which the main themes of the movement are played in temporally compressed form. As the crescendo builds, the tempo is increased to 'presto'. The symphony ends in a magnificent style with 29 bars of C Major chords played fortissimo.
Many noteworthy conductors have disappointed while recording this symphony - a long list includes Toscanini, Furtwangler, Solti, Zubin Mehta, Andre Previn,Otto Klemperer and Riccardo Muti to name a few. Two performances among many have made the grade - Herbert Von Karajan with the Berliner Philharmoniker and Leonard Bernstein with the New York Philharmonic and it is the latter which is the definitive performance because Bernstein respects and honours the repeats in both the opening movement and the finale taking the symphony to a respectable thirty eight minutes in his 1961 performance.

Thursday, July 23, 2009

A Sea Symphony by Ralph Vaughan Williams

Ralph Vaughan Williams' First Symphony, a choral one. This is a good performance by Andre Previn and the London Symphony Orchestra and Choir.It is a remarkably evocative piece of music. The symphony is scored for a large choir, soprano, baritone and orchestra. It is the first complete choral symphony in that each movement is written for vocal soloists, choir and orchestra. The text is from Walt Whitman's 'Leaves of Grass'. Bertrand Russell introduced Vaughan Williams to Walt Whitman's work while they were studying at Cambridge. The work was premiered at the Leeds Festival in 1910 with Vaughan Williams conducting.
The symphony begins with a trumpet fanfare, a thrilling silence before the chorus' entry. At first unaccompanied but later rejoined with a crash of cymbals.The treatment of the steamers is complete with chugging string playing and braying brass reflecting on the title, 'A song for all Seas, all Ships'. The second movement, Largo, is 'On the Beach at Night Alone'. It begins with a low wind-led orchestral introduction with plucking in the bass. Here, we imagine the poet under the stars deep in thought at the beach with quiet rhythm of the sedate waves. The third movement is the Scherzo ' Waves'. This movement is most directly concerned with the sea itself. The scherzo is repeated with increasing pitch and urgency driving us once more into unison to gather the vocal forces for a fanfare conclusion with large interval jumps and lot of percussion. The fourth movement, 'Explorers' is actually hinting at a Passage to India. Here, the emotional intensity is cranked up and the words and music combine most powerfully. The movement concludes after the choir fades away, the orchestra finishes with the double basses bowing like a distant fog horn. The ship sails out of our sight and out of our world. Andre Pevin's reading with the London Symphony dating back to 1970 still sounds good.

Wednesday, July 22, 2009

Herge - A classy writer with classy adventures!

We have seen the animated versions of Tin Tin many times but never paid attention to its creator. I was watching the 'Secret of the Unicorn' yesterday and it has inspired me to do some research on the creator of Tin Tin.
Georges Prosper Remi (nom-de-plume 'Herge' - pronounced Erzhe)was a Belgian, born on 22nd May 1907 (shares the same birthday with the famous German Composer Richard Wagner though Wagner was born in 1813). Herge was a comics writer and an artist. He kept the pen name with the reversal of his initials from Remi Georges , sounding RG or Erzhe in Belgique French. He wrote twenty four episodes of Tin Tin with the last, The Tin Tin and Alph Art being left unfinished when he died on 3rd March 1983. He was inducted into the Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2003.
He was born in Etterbeek in Brussels, Belgium. He displayed an early affinity for drawing. This famous Belgian grew up to be the most influential comic artist ever. He was a Boy Scout and that influenced his personality. In fact, the character Tin Tin was often compared with the stereotype of a boy scout. Herge started his writing career in a scouting magazine, 'Le Boy Scout Belge' with the character, Totor, a predecessor of Tin Tin. Herge's name will always be tied to Tin Tin. 'Le Bijoux de la Castafiore' was probably his best episode in the Tin Tin series.
The good news for movie connoisseurs is that Steven Spielberg and Peter Jackson have teamed to bring Tin Tin Alive on the screen this year.

Wednesday, July 15, 2009

Rosemary's Baby - A Polanski Masterpiece

This is a brilliant horror movie. Polanski has done a great job. Horror films are usually associated with ghosts rattling chains, masked maniacs slashing flesh and vampires sucking blood. But Polanski has definitely got a unique touch here in this 1968 make. He has written the screenplay and directed this Ira Levin novel. A young couple move into a new apartment only to be surrounded by peculiar neighbours and when the wife becomes mysteriously pregnant, paranoia over the safety of her unborn child begins controlling her life. Mia Farrow is good as Rosemary Woodhouse. John Cassavetes is Guy Woodhouse who is a struggling actor; he makes a pact with the devil through witchcraft to offer his wife in delivering the satanic child through an old ritual in return for success in the field of theatre and films. Ruth Gordon picked up an oscar for her performance as Minnie Castevet, the neighbour. Krzysztof Komeda's music is effective and chilling. This is definitely not a film for expecting mothers. Polanski picked up an oscar for screenplay. This is one of the best horror films of all time.

Wednesday, June 3, 2009

King of Kings: A Masterpiece made by a King

Art has been brought back to life. This great flm was released 81 years ago. Its visual quality is rare. It is as if you are witnessing the work of Leonardo Da Vinci. The scenes of crucifixion and its aftermath are chilling. The wind blown leaves and lightning flashes are breathtaking. The 1928 soundtrack, an excellent composition by Hugo Reisenfeld, includes a chorus of voices - screaming, wailing and moaning along with the action on the screen bringing this silent film to a new height. The earthquake scenes are remarkably effective. You can't beat the final two minutes of the film as Jesus leaves his disciples in a radiant glow to the lovely strains of 'Abide with Me.' Reisenfeld in his score has used flashes of Liszt's 'Les Preludes' and Wagner's 'Parsifal' themes. Then a modern skyline appears to a full chorus and orchestra rendition of'Rock of Ages.'
This film was made in 1927 and completed in 1928. H.B. Warner plays Jesus. Another noteworthy performance is by Rudolph Schildkraut playing Caiaphas. Cecil .B. DeMille is the master craftsman who basked in the spotlight continuously from the early silent period to the age of Cinemascope and stereophonic sound. For cinema as an art form, Demille returned it to the most primitive bread-and-circuses spectacle. He had an unshakeable cultural dominance and longevity with the big audience. The Ten Commandments in 1923 was his first biblical epic.
When Christ is risen, the film medium itself rejoices in a four minute blaze of early two-strip Technicolor. The great showstopper is inevitably the crucifixion. When Jesus breathes his last, the inkiest of storm clouds descend, lightning blazes and gigantic fissures in the earth swallow up half the studio of Central Casting. It is a stupendous exhibition by any standard. You can practically smell the sawdust and the greasepaint. This movie is a genuinely uplifting experience.

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

Beethoven's Fourth Symphony - B Flat Major

Robert Schumann described the fourth symphony in B Flat Major of Beethoven as a 'slender Greek maiden between two Norse giants' -Fasolt and Fafner being 'Eroica' and 'Fate' This is the struggling Titan that fate ascribed obscurity to.
It is happy in mood in the first movement. The Adagio expresses a tenderness unique in these symphonies. The Menuetto-Scherzo is bustling with a figurate theme. The finale is dismembered and slowed down as if in slow motion after which the rapid ending has the effect of a burst of laughter from the good-humoured master at his bewildered listeners.
The first performance of the Fourth was on 15th March 1807 at the Wien Palace of Prince Lobkowitz.
The notable recordings are by Andre Cluytens/Berliner Philharmoniker, Yevgeny Mravinsky/Leningrad Philharmonic (featured here), Pablo Casals/Barcelona Symphony, Otto Klemperer/Philharmonia and Herbert Von Karajan/Berliner.

Sunday, April 5, 2009

Das Rheingold: Wiener Philharmoniker - Sir Georg Solti- Prelude

The Lawrence of Arabia Suite

Saturday, April 4, 2009

Maurice Jarre

I learnt today that Maurice Jarre passed away on 29th March 2009 at Los Angeles.
The world has lost a brilliant musician. I considered him as the greatest film music composer after John Williams.
Maurice Alexis Jarre was born in Lyon, Rhone, France on 13th September 1924. He was 84. He enrolled at the Conservatoire du Paris against his father's will and studied composition, harmony and percussion. He studied under Joseph Martenot, the inventor of Martenot Waves, an electronic keyboard that was the predecessor of the modern synthesizer. In 1950, he wrote his first film score for Jean Vilar's 'The Princess of Hamburg'. Jarre's career took a spectacular turn in 1961 when producer Sam Spiegel asked him to work on David Lean's 'Lawrence of Arabia'. And what a score that was! He won his first oscar. It was haunting music. This was the beginning of a great partnership between him and David Lean. His second collaboration with Lean was on Doctor Zhivago in 1965 that earned him another oscar. This music attained a level of success that is rarely achieved by a film score. He worked with Lean again on Ryan's Daughter in 1970 and A Passage to India in 1984. He received his third oscar for A Passage to India. His other works are The Collector for William Wyler in 1965.He wrote ethereal music for Peter Weir in The Witness and The Mosquito Coast. Another brilliant score is for Franco Zefferelli's 'Jesus of Nazareth' in 1977. He also wrote film music for 'The Longest Day' and 'The Man Who Would be King' with use of Indian sarangi, tanpura and santoor. He also incorporated synthetic sounds in his music writing his first entirely electronic score for 'The Year of Living Dangerously' in 1982. He leaves behind two sons and a daughter. One son, Jean Michel Jarre, is another outstanding musician in his own right with works like 'Apocalypse des Animaux' and 'Oxygene'. His brother is Kevin Jarre and his sister is Stefanie Jarre. The perfect tribute to Maurice Jarre is to listen to 'Yuri's Mother's Funeral' in the Doctor Zhivago score where the music includes a balalaika.
One of the great musicians of the Twentieth Century crosses over. May God grant peace to his soul. Amen!

Thursday, April 2, 2009

The Greatest Opera Ever Written - Der Ring Des Nibelungen Cycle by Richard Wagner

Der Ring Des Nibelungen is a cycle of four epic Musik Dramas by Richard Wagner. The operas are based on characters from the Norse sagas and the Nibelungenlied. The works are referred to as the 'Ring Cycle.' Wagner wrote the libretto and the music over a period of 26 years from 1848 to 1874. The Ring begins with a Prelude known as Das Rheingold, followed by Die Walkure, Siegfried and Gotterdammerung. Two other works that are a by-product of the Ring are the Siegfried Idyll for chamber orchestra and Kinderkatechismus for boys' choir and chamber orchestra. Although these operas are performed individually in their own right, Wagner intended the audience to attend the full performance of all four operas spanning four evenings and nineteen hours. This is a mammoth creation by a genius and believe me it deserves each second of your intense concentration. The Nibelung of the title is the elf 'Alberich.' Das Rheingold received its premiere at the National Theatre in Munchen on 22nd September 1869. It was much to the disgust of Wagner because he wanted the Ring operas to be viewed as a cycle in four evenings but he was not ready with Die Walkure yet. The complete cycle, as per the dream of Wagner, received its premiere performance at the Bayreuther Festpielhaus on 13th August 1876. Das Rheingold begins with a 136 bar unmodulating prelude based on the E Flat Major chord that is meant to represent the eternal motions of the River Rhine. It is considered the best known drone piece in the concert repertoire lasting a full four minutes. Another brilliant brushwork by Wagner is in the orchestral interlude from Scene 2 to Scene 3 where Wagner paints the descent of Loge and Wotan into Nibelheim. As the orchestra fades, it gives rise to a choir of 18 tuned anvils indicated in the score with specific size, quantity and pitch. These anvils are beating out the dotted rhythm of the Nibelung theme to give a stark depiction to the toiling of the enslaved dwarves. The definitive interpretation of this work has been given by Sir Georg Solti with the Wiener Philharmoniker. The other conductors who perform with spirit and fervour are Wilhelm Furtwangler, Herbert Von Karajan and Pierre Boulez.

Wednesday, April 1, 2009

The Definitive Version of the Prelude to the Ring

There have been many recordings of the Ring in the last fifty years and this is the defintive one. The Ring is about fifteen hours long of demanding and intense music. It is Solti's conducting that provides the difference when compared with others. It is extremely extrovert and dramatic. The opening prelude, describing the dawn on River Rhine with the basses, rippling strings and the brass announcing the sun, is so emphatic; no recording before and after has brought this out with such an effect. Solti's handling of the climaxes is peerless. I cannot begin to describe the entire story of Das Rheingold (the first part of Der Ring Des Nibelungen) but the brief synopsis is that the Rhinemaidens are guarding the Rheingold for their father Wotan and one of the Nibelung elfs , Alberich, renounces the love and lust for rhinemaidens or any other maiden forever and that gives him the power to wield a ring from the gold. That Ring gives him the power to rule the world. The Ring is about the tribulations that Wotan faces and the sacrifices he has to make to redeem the power and justice in the world again. The magic of Richard Wagner's orchestration in the Rainbow and Valhalla music has rarely been brought out so masterfully. Gustav Neidlinger is superb as Alberich. George London as Wotan is dark and regal bass-baritone. The sound effects are excellent. For example, the clang of the anvils, Donner's hammerblow and the thunderclap in the final scene have never been matched.

Tuesday, March 17, 2009

The Musical of Musicals!

I was eight when this film was made. Richard Rodger's and Oscar Hammerstein II's film is a 1965 musical directed by Robert Wise. This is the greatest musical ever made. This is also the third greatest film ever made after 'The Ten Commandments' and 'Ben Hur'. The film is based on the Broadway musical of the same name. Ernest Lehman wrote the screenplay. The musical originated from 'The Story of the Trapp Family Singers' by Maria Von Trapp.
It was photographed in 70MM TODD-AO lens by Ted .D. McCord. When it released in Ramakrishna 70MM in Hyderabad in the March of 1967, it was an event that made an unforgettable impression on my mind - first time we were exposed to a big screen film with its mighty decor and chandeliers in the cinema with all those 'nataraja' statuettes adorning the sides of the theatre topped with such a magnificent opening film. I remember this film almost ran for over a year and was succeeded by yet another masterpiece called 'The Bible' by John Huston.
My father, Syed Ali Hussain Nakavi, was so impressed by this film that he saw it thrice during my summer holidays of 1967 and the third time we went to the cinema, he smuggled our 'Crown' spool recorder and recorded the entire film's dialogue and music on two spools. He had carried a spare spool knowing that the film exceeded 174 minutes. Looking back, I think my father was way ahead of his time in revolutionising the piracy techniques and those were the days before the advent of VHS tapes, CDs and DVDs. The only way a film was seen was on the cinema screens. There was no 'Doordarshan' television yet in Hyderabad in those days.
The movie was filmed on location in Salzburg (pronounced as Zaalsboorg). It picked up the Best Picture of 1965.
The Story: In 1930s Austria, a young woman named Maria is failing miserably in her attempts to become a nun. Maria is given the job of a governess to handle the seven mischievous children of a naval captain, Georg Von Trapp. The Captain's wife is dead. He is often away and runs the household as strictly as he does the ships he sails on with his dog whistle. The children are unhappy and resentful of the governesses that their father keeps hiring. They manage to run each of them off one by one. Maria is also met with the same hostility but her kindness and unusually outspoken nature soon draws them to her and brings some joy into their lives, including the Captain's. Eventually, though the Captain is engaged to a Baroness from Vienna (Wien), the Captain and Maria fall in love. The romance makes them to question the decisions they have made earlier. Their personal conflicts are then swept aside by the world events. Austria succumbs to the onslaught of the Nazi Germany under Hitler's regime and the Captain is forcibly drafted into the German navy and made to fight against his own country. The story culminates in how he and his family manage to escape after their music concert into the Austrian Alps making their way to Switzerland with the choral refrain of 'Climb Every Mountain.'
Julie Andrews as Maria Von Trapp has given the performance of her lifetime. In fact, after Anne Baxter's 'Nefretiri' in 'The Ten Commandments', this is the greatest female lead performance either in a drama or a musical in the history of cinema. I was so captivated with Julie Andrews at that impressionable age of ten that I could think of no one else but her while studying, eating, drinking and sleeping. She was a model of excellence for me and dreamed that I would marry her one day. Her acting and singing in the film is heavenly. The high Cs she achieves in Do-Re-Mi-Fa-So-La-Ti are exhilarating. She had done two other greats before doing this film. That was Mary Poppins and the Broadway version of 'Pygmalion' (My Fair Lady) with Rex Harrison. Somehow, she was not selected for the film version by Lerner and Loewe as the casting went in favour of Audrey Hepburn who also did a marvellous job.
In Salzburg, even today, there are 'Sound of Music' tours that have become a booming source of revenue for Austria.
Christopher Plummer is magnificent as Captain Georg Von Trapp. Eleanor Parker is the Baroness. Peggy Ashcroft is the Mother Abbess who looks like the twin sister of John Wayne. The music and lyrics are out of this world. This is sublime movie making. If this film is given as an offering to the Divine Architect of the Universe, He will me mighty pleased with this sacred offering. As the first frame comes on to the screen, you look at the grandeur of the magnificent Austrian Alps in their bold splendour and Julie Andrews enlarges on to the frame with a stupendous rendition of 'The Hills are Alive with the Sound of Music'... until the glorious refrain of the final 'Climb Every Mountain' fades from the screen, you would have journeyed through the MUSICAL OF ALL MUSICALS.

Friday, February 20, 2009

Saboteur - Early Hitchcock and good enough!

The famous tagline for this Hitchcock masterpiece was '3000 miles of terror' hinting at the cross country run by the fugitive from Los Angeles to New York with the climax being shot at the Radio City Music Hall and the Statue of Liberty at Liberty Island. Aircraft factory worker, Barry Kane goes on the run across the United States when he is wrongly accused of starting a fire that killed his best friend. The film is in black and white and runs 108 minutes. Alfred Hitchcock chose to use the word 'finis' (European - French for The End) at the end. Robert Cummings stars as Barry Kane, a patriotic munitions worker who is falsely accused of sabotage in this wartime thriller. This film was made by Hitchcock between 'Suspicion' and 'Shadow of a Doubt'. Hitchcock is feeling his way around America literally. Cummings is lively and engaging. His naivete suits the character he is portraying. Where this film differs from his better known films is that the audience is let in on the game early. The villains become apparent fairly soon. The master's handling is very much there for people to see in pristine black and white. This is one of the first steps we have to take to understand Hitchcock as a master film maker.

Wednesday, February 18, 2009

Citylights: Enlightening

Released on 6th February 1931, this is yet another masterpiece by Charles Spencer Chaplin. The tramp struggles to help a blind flower girl he has fallen in love with. She and her grandmother are in financial trouble. The tramp develops an on and off relationship with a millionaire whom he saves when he is about to take his life. That wealthy man allows him to be the girl's benefactor and suitor. It is a charmingly simple story. The tramp meets this lovely blind flower girl who is selling flowers on a sidewalk. She mistakes him for a wealthy duke. When he learns that an operation may restore her sight in Vienna, he sets off to earn the money she needs to have for her surgery. In a series of comedy adventures that only Chaplin could pull off, he eventually succeeds even though his efforts land him in jail. While he is in jail (the millionaire charges him for robbing the money that he has always given him in his drunken stupor), the girl gets her eyes restored by the operation and longs to meet her benefactor. The closing scene in which she discovers that he is not a wealthy duke but an inconsequential tramp is one of the highest moments in the movie that made my eyes wet. Virginia Cherrill is the blind girl. She is pretty. Harry Myers puts in a great performance as the eccentric millionaire. The music is by Chaplin himself and the theme he has given for the blind girl is haunting and gracious. In this film, Chaplin is the actor, the director, the musician, the sentimentalist, the knockabout clown( the ring scene and the music are brilliant), the ballet dancer, the athlete, the lover, the tragedian and the fool. What more could I say? There is an inventive use of pantomime through which the tramp relates to the audience. Despite this film being a silent one in 1931, the audiences flocked to City Lights anyway.

Tuesday, February 17, 2009

The Great Dictator

This was Chaplin's first talkie and probably his greatest film. It was made in 1940. Released on 7th March 1941. Written and directed by him. Chaplin plays Hynkel, Dictator of Tomania and his double , a Jewish barber. Jack Oakie plays Napaloni, the Dictator of Bacteria. Both being references to Hitler and Mussolini. When released, this movie was banned in all occupied countries by the Nazis. In the occupied Balkans, it was screened once to a German audience. The members of a resistance group switched the reels in a military cinema and replaced a comedic opera with a copy of this film which they had smuggled in from Greece. So, a group of German soldiers enjoyed the screening of this film until they realised what it was. Some left the cinema and others were reported to have fired shots at the screen. Garbitsch is a reference to Josef Goebbels. Goebbels had a copy of The Great Dictator seized from one of the German occupied countries and then brought it to Hitler. Hitler screened the film alone except for his personal projectionist. When it was over, it is said that he demanded to see it again. Beyond that, his reaction is not known. Chaplin wrote," I'd give anything to know what he thought of it."
How did Chaplin accomplish the upside down plane stunt? By turning the prop airplane upside-down with the actors strapped in, then by turning the camera upside-down as well and just pouring the water on the studio floor making it appear to go upwards.
Let me tell you that it was Chaplin who kept this style of mustache first and Hitler had the audacity to borrow it from the most famous celebrity in the world. The two men were born within four days of each other. Paulette Godard, Chaplin's wife at that time, plays the barber's beloved. Chaplin hits one of his highest moments in the amazing sequence where he performs a dance of love with a large inflated globe of the world. The hunger for world domination has never been more rhapsodically expressed. The slapstick is swift and sharp. It was still not enough for Chaplin. He ends the film with the barber's six-minute speech calling for peace and prophesying a hopeful future for troubled mankind. The lyricism and the sheer humanity of it are still stirring. This was the last appearance of Chaplin's little tramp character and not coincidentally, it was his first talkie.
"I’m sorry, but I don’t want to be an Emperor, that’s not my business. I don’t want to rule or conquer anyone. I should like to help everyone if possible, Jew, gentile, black man, white. We all want to help one another, human beings are like that. We all want to live by each other’s happiness, not by each other’s misery. We don’t want to hate and despise one another. In this world there is room for everyone and the good earth is rich and can provide for everyone. The way of life can be free and beautiful. But we have lost the way. Greed has poisoned men’s souls, has barricaded the world with hate; has goose-stepped us into misery and bloodshed. We have developed speed, but we have shut ourselves in; machinery that gives abundance has left us in want. Our knowledge has made us cynical, our cleverness hard and unkind. We think too much and feel too little. More than machinery we need humanity, more than cleverness we need kindness and gentleness. Without these qualities life will be violent and all will be lost. The aeroplane and the radio have brought us closer together. The very nature of these inventions cries out for the goodness in men, cries out for universal brotherhood for the unity of us all. Even now my voice is reaching millions throughout the world, millions of despairing men, women and little children, victims of a system that makes men torture and imprison innocent people. To those who can hear me I say: do not despair. The misery that is now upon us is but the passing of greed, the bitterness of men who fear the way of human progress. The hate of men will pass and dictators will die, and the power they took from the people will return to the people and so long as men die liberty will never perish. Soldiers: don’t give yourselves to brutes, men who despise you and enslave you, who regiment your lives, tell you what to do, what to think and what to feel, who drill you, diet you, treat you as cattle, as cannon fodder! Don’t give yourselves to these unnatural men, machine men, with machine minds and machine hearts. You are not machines! You are not cattle! You are men!! You have the love of humanity in your hearts. You don’t hate, only the unloved hate. The unloved and the unnatural. Soldiers: don’t fight for slavery, fight for liberty! In the seventeenth chapter of Saint Luke it is written: - “The kingdom of God is within man.” Not one man, nor a group of men, but in all men: in you! You the people have the power, the power to create machines, the power to create happiness. You the people have the power to make this life free and beautiful, to make this life a wonderful adventure. Then, in the name of democracy, let us use that power, let us all unite! Let us fight for a new world, a decent world that will give men a chance to work, that will give you the future and old age and security. By the promise of these things, brutes have risen to power, but they lie. They do not fulfil their promise, they never will. Dictators free themselves but they enslave the people. Now let us fight to fulfil that promise. Let us fight to free the world, to do away with national barriers, to do away with greed, with hate and intolerance. Let us fight for a world of reason, a world where science and progress will lead to all men’s happiness. Soldiers! In the name of democracy: let us all unite!" This speech by Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin is perhaps the greatest speech ever made particularly in the context of events just after the Second World War. In the 1940s, when the United States was at peace with Nazi Germany and around the time when Adolf Hitler’s end was nigh, a film “The Great Dictator” was made. Directed, produced, scored and written by the legendary Charlie Chaplin, the film went on to condemn Hitler like no other film of the era. Interestingly, the film was Chaplin’s first talking film. Chaplin was the only producer who continued to make mute films around that time. Without doubt, the film turned out to be Chaplin’s most commercially successful film. Charlie Chaplin played two roles in the film: that of a Jewish Barber, and of Adenoid Hynkel (parody of Adolf Hitler) who is the dictator of a fictional nation Tomania (parody of Germany). Towards the end, the Jewish Barber goes on to become the Führer of Tomania. The speech that we portray today in our series of the The Greatest Speeches deserves to be a part of this column. On YouTube, the speech is “the greatest speech ever made”. The speech is delivered by the Barber (Chaplin) after he is made Führer of Tomania. Because of his humble background, at first, he is hesitant to get on the podium. Once he gets up on the podium, for the first forty seconds or so, he utters not a single word. And then he begins. The speech starts with ever so touching words, “I’m sorry, but I don’t want to be an emperor.” He goes on to talk about inequality that has clouded humanity and how greed “has barricaded the world with hate”. Towards the end is when the speech becomes worthy of being called “the greatest”, where he addresses his soldiers. “Don’t give yourselves to these unnatural men, machine men, with machine minds and machine hearts. You are not machines! You are not cattle! You are men!!” The unnatural men, and the machine men being the dictators. Chaplin, hands down the greatest comedian of cinema, in what was his first talking movie, delivers a speech that manages to touch the very core of your heart, putting into words what all of us have thought before, but have been too hesitant to utter; words that inspire us to the verge of tears, making us realise that we have the power- the power to do the impossible, to break free of the chains that tie us down, to break through national barriers, looks past the differences in man, and unite. Unite, to make this world a better place, a place where there is an inexhaustible amount of peace, and love, and happiness.

Monday, February 9, 2009

The Definitive Eroica

Ludwig Van Beethoven had mentioned clearly on the instructions to the performers of this symphony that the exposition of the first movement is to be repeated. Leonard Bernstein is one of the first who has done that and remains among a very rare select few. The rest have ignored and neglected that vital instruction. Bernstein's lecture on "How a Great Symphony was Written" is very educational where he sits at the piano and plays out the themes of this revolutionary symphony. The New York Philharmonic are in their element here. The First Movement, Allegro con brio, is treated with real punch right from the earth shattering opening chords to its brilliant coda and climax. The Marcia Funebre- Adagio Assai is treated with high solemnity. Along with Karajan and Klemperer, this is an excellent rendition of the funeral march. The Scherzo is beaming with vigour and the french horns (3) are exceptional in the trio section. The finale with its theme and variations and the brilliant fugue at the end bring the symphony to its blazing conclusion. This is the performance to beat. This is the definitive Eroica.

Sunday, February 8, 2009


Symphony No. 3 in E Flat Major. Op. 55 (1803) - Ludwig Van Beethoven. 'Eroica.' It was influenced by Napoleon's achievements. Among history's many examples, Eroica stands high. This distinction took birth when this symphony interrupted the evolution of symphonic development and appeared without a precedent or a prototype. This symphony marked the end of classicism and turned the pages of Romanticism. It was moulded in a fiery new style. Its impact and influence would be heard for a generation to come. The symphony symbolises Napoleon, heroism, death, apotheosis and revolution. At first, Beethoven thought extremely highly of Napoleon and compared him to the greatest Roman consuls. When Napoleon declared himself emperor, Beethoven decided that Napoleon was nothing but an ordinary mortal and tore the dedication page to the symphony and dedicated it to Prince Lobkowitz later. The public that was used to the Haydn and Mozart opening of the symphonies was in a for a brute shock when the first two opening chords shattered the expectations of the bourgeoisie and brought the curtain down on the Classical Age. This was about twice the size of normal Haydn or Mozart symphonies. In his D major Symphony, Beethoven had begun to move beyond the traditional concept of the classical symphony. This symphony brought about change. The change it brought involves more than the issues of harmony, counterpoint or an addition of a french horn to the ensemble. Post Eroica, appreciation of a symphony involves not only attention to compositional technique but includes the added dimension of meaning and interpretation. The symphony was started in 1803 and completed in early 1804 but the first performance was given at Theater An Der Wien with Beethoven conducting on 7th April 1805.The symphony is scored for strings, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets(in B Flat Major), 2 bassoons, 3 french horns(E Flat Major and C Major), two trumpets and timpani.After the earth shattering E Flat major chords, the opening movement, Allegro Con Brio, gives out a number of characteristic themes. As per Leonard Bernstein, "this was a battle cry.. it was a clarion call to a new understanding of music." At the time of its premiere, a third of the audience appreciated the revolutionary opening, a third did not understand it and the remainder were shell shocked and would have preferred the whole affair to have not taken place at all. The main theme is given out at the very beginning by the cellos in a quiet manner. The violins then enter with repeated high notes resolving to the second subject brought about by the clarinets and oboes and after few measures we come across the syncopations that play an important part in this great picture of strife. The linking of the development to the recapitulation is a special moment. The violins are still preparing the way by a tender episode for the winds, repeated by the strings and the entry of the french horn that interrupt the turmoil but after a short breather a rapid crescendo leads again to the clashing syncopations. A similar treatment is adopted in the second part with a glorious theme on the oboe and the coda is one of the most remarkable piece of orchestral writing ever accomplished. In this movement , Beethoven indicates that the exposition is to be repeated. This repeat is generally omitted in performances or rather neglected. Leonard Bernstein with the New York Philharmonic has honoured it among a very few.

Beethoven replaced the slow movement by a funeral march. The sombre and tragic mood of this movement reflects a universal emotion with its sad melody in C Minor and its heartfelt tones of melancholy. It was marked as 'Marcia Funebre' - Adagio Assai. The movement is in rondo form. Its principal section is a solemn dirge in C Minor and is contrasted with a brighter episode in C Major and the massive fugato in F Minor. The outer sections are intense and heavily funereal but the central part is more mobile and brings a balance and contrast. Throughout this movement, the instrumental colours emphasise the solemnity. This movement is occasionally performed on memorial occasions. Serge Koussevitzky performed it to commemorate the death of President Roosevelt. Bruno Walter did it for Arturo Toscanini. This remains as the first broad, spacious and towering adagio in the Romantic symphonies that is dwarfed only by the heavenly Adagio Molto of the Choral Symphony.The Scherzo- Allegro Vivace is highly individualistic. It begins with a pianissimo staccato that has something mysterious in its character on the lower notes of the violins. The melody then rises into a higher octave in a short group of connected descending notes. In the trio, Beethoven uses a special sound efect, the unusual seventh in the horns with an additional horn coming into play. It breaks forth with a sudden fortissimo with a reminder of the syncopations of the Allegro climaxing with sinsiter drumbeats of the coda. The finale, Allegro Molto, begins with a dominant seventh chord in the form of a cadenza is a large scale series of variations on an impressive theme in the bass. In the third variation, a melody in the first oboe and clarinet is added to this theme and thereafter always appears with it. Beethoven was particularly fascinated by both these tunes as he had already used them in his 'Creatures of Prometheus' as well as in his piano variations opus 35. The movement now proceeds on to a fugue that ends with a grand climax bringing the symphony to its blazing conclusion. The definitive performance of this symphony is by Leonard Bernstein with the Vienna Philharmonic and New York Philharmonic. Bernstein is in his element and is one of the first in the recording annals to take the repeat in the first movement. I even have his treatise on "The writing of a Grand Symphony" where he plays the themes of the Eroica on the piano as he explains the evolution of this great work. Other noteworthy performances are by Herbert Von Karajan with the Berliner Philharmoniker (the oboists and the french horns are superb) and Otto Klemperer (his Adagio is superb) with the Philharmonia Orchestra. Wilhelm Furtwangler, Georg Solti and Zubin Mehta have disappointed with their listless approach. I was expecting a lot with Furtwangler but the Vienna recording did not have spine. I have still to hear his version with the Berliners in 1952. Even Toscanini has rushed through this symphony and failed to impress. It is Bernstein that has given us the best Eroica to date. I am attaching his performance with the Wiener Philharmoniker which is a step ahead of his New York reading. Next to Maestro Leonard Bernstein is this performance by a Japanese Koho Uno with the Osaka Philharmonic. It is shattering indeed!

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

Chaplin's Masterpiece - The Circus

It is a masterpiece that brings you to tears. Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin made ' The Circus' in 1928 in not so happy circumstances. He was in the midst of a divorce settlement and things were not going right for the production. In fact, the circus ring on the sets even caught fire resulting in time and production losses. Yet, through all these trials and tribulations, Chaplin came out a winner. The film was given an academy award in 1929; an award it richly deserves. The shot techniques, the story, the script and not to forget the music that Chaplin scored himself. The Merna Kennedy theme is beautiful on the violas and cellos with the mandolin in the background. In the 1960s re-release, Chaplin wrote and even sung a song for the film called, 'Swing Little Girl.' I have watched this film after 81 years since its release and still it could move me to tears. The final scene is unforgettable when the caravan moves out and the tramp sits lonely on a discarded circus trunk. Hats off to Chaplin! Raj Kapoor tried to emulate him and this screenplay in his film, 'Mera Naam Joker' (quite a decent effort - in fact Raj Kapoor's best Indian film). When I was through with Chaplin's 'Circus', my eyes were wet.

The Second Symphony of Beethoven

The D Major Symphony was completed in the summer of 1802. The first public performance was given at the Theater An der Wien on 5th April 1803. At its first performance, it was described as being full of new, original ideas and very powerful.
It was written during his stay at Heiligenstadt in 1802. It was near the time that he began to realise that he was becoming deaf. It is one of the last works of Beethoven's 'early period.' The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets in A Major, two bassoons, two french horns in D and E, two trumpets in D Major, timpani and strings. The composer also made a transcription for piano trio which bears the same opus number 36 in 1805.
The symphony consists of four movements: adagio molto - allegro con brio; larghetto; scherzo-allegro (after the symphony's premiere, it was noted that the traditional minuet was absent as Beethoven replaced the minuet with the scherzo); allegro molto. At average performing time, the symphony's duration is 37 minutes.
Adagio Molto begins in D Major and briefly modulates to A major. The exposition takes the A major theme with a transition to B flat major. The development uses this material with a codetta going through several modulations. The A major theme returns in the recapitulation and takes us to the coda and conclusion of the movement. Larghetto is in A Major and is one of Beethoven's beautiful symphonic slow movements. There are clear indications of the influence of folk music and pastoral music. Scherzo- Allegro evolves around a melodious oboe and bassoon quartet with typical sounding Austrian side-slapping dance. Allegro Molto is comprised of very rapid string passages. It is of great depth with musical and harmonic complexity. A critic described this movement as " a dragon ran through by a spear, not wanting to die and drained of blood, wagging its tail."
Noteworthy performances of this symphony are by Herbert Von Karajan and the Berliner Philharmoniker (1963), Otto Klemperer with the Philharmonia Orchestra (1957) and Sir Thomas Beecham with the London Philharmonic (1958).